Cascade e-Ion vs. Lasers


Comparisons with directed energy beam systems (Laser, Electron Beam to Sunlight). The CleanElectricFlame® can be used as a narrow or wide area source (beam). Some comparisons between Laser and Sunlight are provided.

(All information in general comparison tables like the ones shown below should only be treated as approximate or indicative of order of magnitude.)

Cascade e-Ion Plasma™ Laser Electron Beam Microwave Induction Sunlight
Surface Impact The beam’s 250mm diameter significantly impacts productivity and improves efficiency. The large area allows for CleanElectricFlame® soaking at various power settings.

Please contact MHI.

The commonly available average beam size is about 2mm Commonly, less than 0.5mm beam Poor Depth varies with the frequency of the machine. Varies
Welding/Joining Yes, even for dissimilar materials Yes, limited by beam parameters Yes, limited by beam parameters Scarce possibilities No for non-metals or poor electrical conductors like ceramics or plastics

Yes, when metallic. Coils need to couple and sometimes be formed into complex shapes.

Relative Cost of Gas. Compared to Air

Air 1
Nitrogen 10
Hydrogen 40
Argon 60
Helium 210
High kW
Drilling Yes Yes No
Vacuum Always Required? No vacuum is required.

Plasmize air or other gases.

No Yes No

It cannot be used with metal.

Power Density

106-109 W/m2

106-108 W/mfor commonly used industrial CO2 continuous lasers. Depends on the laser type. ~106 W/m2 Depends on acceleration voltage and wavelength of the beam Low: about 1 to 2 kW for the entire chamber.�Power density is low for the surface. Bulk volume dominates as a major term for power density. Efficiency depends on coil spacing, frequency, and type of materials kept in the coil. 1.3 x103 W/m2 (average)
Water Requirement None.  Adds to High Energy Efficiency. High High No Extremely high N/A
Energy Efficiency Very high Very low Very low Variable Very Low N/A

The relative price to use a gas or maintain a vacuum is above. The SmartPlasma(TM) Cascade e-Ion machine can use air as the gas input.

Surface Deposition Comparisons

Cascade de-e-Ion Plasma™ Laser Electron Beam
Deposit Rate Very high, continuous, and flexible for even Colloids and gels. Medium Medium, discontinuous
Species Deposited Atoms and Ions. Atoms and Ions Mostly Atoms
Complex Shaped Objects Good/Excellent, varying uniformity Good Poor, based on line of sight
Alloy Depositing Yes Yes Yes
Simultaneous Gas Heating Yes No No
Substrate Heating Yes Low Yes
Operational Costs and Capital Cost Small High High

The relative price to use a gas or maintain a vacuum is above. The innovative Cascade e-Ion machine can be used with air as the gas input.

Comparison Price with Conventional Batch Type Ion Nitriding Machine

Type Conventional

RF Type

Small Volume


RF Type


Cascade e-Ion System
Working volume, m3


(*We encourage users to compare prices independently, as discounts, exchange rates, and other issues may impact the prices discussed.) This table shows only rough estimates.

0.1m3 (~3.5 cu. ft).

Price about $100,000

10m3 (~350 cu. ft)

Prices start at $500,000

Unlimited Volume

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Working surface diameter x height estimate 500 mm by 610 mm 1100 mm by 5100 mm Unlimited because it is disconnected from machine features.
Draw to Part Power Efficiency  1-5 % typical over 90% typical
Typical Machine ~20 / 25 kW ~200 kW

200kW operational price is about US$32000 per 200 days/ year @10¢/KWhr and 8 hrs of use per day

From 3kW-20kW. Several Powers are offered.
Working gases Mostly inert or nonoxidizing.

Nitrogen, hydrogen, ammonia, propane, natural gas, methane, argon

This includes air and steam nitrogen and other elements as required.
Typical Operation Pressure 1 – 8 millibar. Vacuum required. Costly. No Vacuum Requirement.

1 atmosphere