With the advent of new high-temperature high-quality dry-steam, a number of enhanced designs and energy-efficient process-applications have recently become possible.
MHI steam generators are designed for low to high variable steam production to the highest temperatures.
Chemical and Fuel Production Applications: Many steam reactions are beneficial for energy production and biomass. Super-heated steam offers high kinetics and clean chemistry for waste-to-fuel discrete community fuel production. Consider the OAB-4-750 or GOAB-12-800 or the OAB-36 or GHGA. Plastics are hydrocarbons that are made from petroleum, and they can be converted back to liquid fuel. For example, pyrolysis could be used to do this. When subjected to the high heat and pressure, water breaks down the plastic and converts it into oil. An attractive method of converting these waste materials to useful form is anaerobic digestion with steam heating which gives biogas that can be used as a fuel. Waste can also be converted to methanol and ethanol. Garbage can be converted with plasma impact to break down organic materials into syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Organic waste via the Fischer-Tropsch reaction can be converted into Fuel. A mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide – from municipal solid waste and other renewable biomass, can be converted to long-chain hydrocarbon molecules that make up diesel and jet fuels. Some of these reactions are discussed in https://mhi-inc.com/steam-applications/.
For syngas please see reactions below and choose the GHGA model most suitable. MHI offers CO2 (carbon dioxide) and CH4 (methane gas) Airtorch® heaters. Please contact MHI for each.
To help with the COVID-19 process we are encouraging our customers to consider helping front-line workers at hospitals, testing clinics and other health-care facilities in their fight against the coronavirus and the COVID-19 disease it causes with innovative uses of the steam products and Airtorch Products. We have placed many such products in the ‘Sale’ section of the MHI web-store.
Antimicrobial Applications: Dry high quality low-oxygen steam is a known antimicrobial agent that works without any organic residue. The canning and bottling industry uses a considerable amount of steam. Use for aseptic processing. The productivity increase with the availability of MightySteam™ – high temperature, dry and instant is a remarkable condition for steam – particularly useful for cleaning and soil remediation uses. Please click for steam anti-microbial tutorials and published studies.
Heating Applications: Steam offers heat transfer coefficients that are very high. The heat-content is also very high. Steam dries faster than air above the inversion point. Use one of these generators.
Steam is Antimicrobial (Bacteria, Fungus or Viruses) depending on the temperature and residence time. Click here.
Zero CO2 production cyclic reactions. Please see below.
Power Generation with Condensing Steam. MHI steam 800C+ models for Mega Watts are useful for turning turbines. Remember only the temperature difference is related to the Carnot efficiency. Please contact MHI.
Can steam kill (deactivate) the Caronavirus? It appears so based on the temperature and residence time requirements. As with all antimicrobial uses each condition could be different and testing is required for efficiency analyses. When cleaning surfaces, particular metallic please use steam residence for >280C and adequate residence time. The residence time is time of use, any steam based killing may require at least a few seconds of proper use, just like about 20s are required for hand washing with soap. The higher the temperature the higher the probability of kill. The higher the residence time the higher the probability of kill. Some surfaces can also deactivate bacteria. Test coupons are available.
Typical Applications of Super-heated Steam are Drying, Antimicrobial, Steam-heating, Fuel Production and Chemical Reactions. Improve productivity with steam – use a temperature higher than the inversion temperature. Deep water and energy savings.
Biomass (for electricity generation)
Waste to Fuel (see below)
Sawdust, wood fiber, pulverized coal, wood chips, wood pulp, spruce and birch bark, milled peat, peat for briquettes, Fuel from Waste, Municipal and plant waste. Recycle CO2 by using hot-steam in a fuel cell to make hydrogen and then use airtorch for hydrogen reaction with CO2. So first water vapor and break it down into hydrogen and oxygen -electrolysis at 800C – then use the H2 (g) with CO2 (g) – see reactions below. Burning Fuel gives CO2(g) so the cycle can be completed. Energy use is also seen in electro-chemical power generation with two phase raw materials.
Washing powder, pigment, potassium salt, powdery chemicals, catalysts, coloring agents, regeneration (chemical), carbon activation. It is recognized that the process for turning rubber compounds into usable finished products is vulcanization. There are various types of vulcanization. Most economical is open vulcanization which can take place in hot air or in steam. In the past proper hot steam was not available nor was high-life hot air. Now patented MHI products that offer a wide variety of both steam and hot air and hot process gasses very accurately and with units that have extremely high warranties have changed this landscape. This will help im making synthetic diesel from water, electricity and CO2.
Food industry (sugar)
Sugar beet pulp, dietary fiber from sugar beat,
Food industry (base materials)
Hog fuel, corn fibers/fibres, protein containing base materials (soy beans, rape seed, sunflower seed, soy meal, okra, etc.). Peel vegetables like potato or tomato or dry vegetables, essential oils, organic compounds. Fuel from waste food is offered above 750 C.
Shrimp, pork, bamboo shoot, paddy / rice, herbs, cacao beans, corn gluten, tobacco (drying, expansion). From cooking to cleaning. Videos and Media Gallery.
Food industry (starch)
Starch, potato, vegetable, wheat flour, distillers grain and other staples. From cooking to cleaning. reported to much better than vacuum drying., flavors and vat heating, scents.
Food industry (meat)
Pork, bone meal. Clean meat tables and study tables. Food laboratory. Review a study. Canning, Bottling and Packaging
Improve productivity and efficacy.
Potatoes, Mussels, Artichoke can be Steamed as can Rice with MHI steam products.
Curing and drying. Polymer curing, reactions, coagulation. Drying of sand molds and investment molds.
Reaction kinetics manipulation, water-shift and WGSR, reverse water gas-shift reaction, flavor reactions, photosynthesis, azeotropic distillation, volatile(s) manipulation, rubber vulcanization
Paper & pulp applications
Paper, fiber/fiber sludge from waste water treatment, drying
(Coated) textile, drying, cotton fibers, improve water uptake, improve quality of fiber yarn for cotton
Industrial wastes, filter cakes, sludge from water purification, municipal sludge
Vegetables & fruit
Vegetables, Tea, Coffee, herbs
Milk powder, flash drying
Potato products, fries (pre-drying)
For antimicrobial and other types of cleaning/finishing metals, semiconductors, silicone/plastics, rubber, composites and ceramics.
Wood, lime mud (before calcination), paint, adhesive, mineral wool, fibres, lumber, cement curing, Shrink wrap packaging, quick energy efficient use. Green Pipe Repair.
Laundry industry/ General to special cleaning
Laundry, dry cleaning, cleaning (several levels including microbial). Clean bio-implants and textiles.
Gasification: Gasification is the conversion of waste materials that takes place in the presence of limited amounts of oxygen – a thermochemical process. Steam or the oxygen in the air is reacted at high temperature with the available carbon in the waste material to produce gases such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. Gasification processes produce a “syngas” (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) which is used for generating electricity power. Thermal gasification of the waste materials allow the production of a gaseous fuel that can be easily collected and transported. Gasification typically takes place at temperatures from 750-1100°C.
Pyrolysis: This is also a thermal process similar to gasification above which involves the thermal degradation of organic waste in the absence of free oxygen to produce combustible gases. Pyrolysis uses heat to break down organic materials in the absence of oxygen e.g with steam heating to 1250C. Materials suitable for pyrolysis processing include coal, animal and human waste, food scraps, paper, cardboard, plastics and rubber. The pyrolytic process produces oil which can be used as a synthetic bio-diesel fuel or refined to produce other useful products. Sometimes the byproduct of pyrolysis is a kind of fine-grained bio-charcoal called “biochar”, which retains most of the carbon and nutrients contained in biomass so can be used as a soil enhancement to increase soil productivity. During Pyrolisis volatile gases are released from a dry biomass at temperatures ranging up to about 700C. These gases are non-condensable vapors such as CH4, CO, CO2 and H2, and condensable-vapor of tar at the ambient temperature. Cellulose can break down into Char, H2O, CO2 and methane.
Combustion: Use the Airtorch+Steam combination for a clean most common and well-proven thermal process using a wide variety of waste fuels. Municipal and household waste is directly combusted in large waste to energy incinerators as a fuel with minimal processing known as mass burning. Combustion can be with a solid, liqid or gas reactant with oxidation. The Boudouard reaction (solid combustion) is stable above 700C to eliminate CO2 because CO2(g) + C = 2CO(g). Above 700C one can use CO(g) as a reductant for oxides as is done for iron oxide reduction. Link to MHI Fluidized Bed Designs.
Digestion: Landfills are the primary method of disposal of municipal solid waste and if left undisturbed, landfill waste produces significant amounts of gaseous byproducts, consisting mainly of carbon dioxide and combustible methane (CH4). This landfill gas or bio-gas is produced by the (oxygen-free) anaerobic digestion of organic matter. Treatment by steam is often recommended for elimination of certain harmful bacteria. Anaerobic digestion to produce bio-gas can either occur naturally producing a landfill gas, or inside a controlled environment like a biogas digester. A digester is a warmed, sealed, airless container where bacteria ferment an organic material such as liquid and semi-solid slurries, animal wastes and manures in oxygen-free conditions for bio-gas. An advantage of anaerobic digestion for converting waste to energy fuel is that it employs semi-solid or wet waste. This is normally a small scale operation. The bio-gas produced can be burned in a conventional gas boiler to produce heat or as fuel in a gas engine to generate electricity or fuel some of the farm vehicles.
Fermentation:Fermentation uses various microorganisms and yeasts to produce liquid ethanol, a type of alcohol, from biomass and bio-waste materials. The conversion of waste to energy by fermentation requires a series of chemical reactions to produce the ethanol bio-fuel. Here steam can be directly introduced for rapid kinetics. Multiple reactions occur. The first reaction is called hydrolysis, which converts organic materials into sugars. The sugars can then be fermented (similar to making alcohol) to make dilute ethanol, which is then further distilled to produce a bio-fuel ethanol.
Typical high temperature steam i.e H2O(g), CO(g) and CO2(g) reactions for consideration for CO2 removal (one atmosphere) or for making H2 (gas).
CH4(g) + H2O(g) = CO(g) + 3H2(g) Steam Reforming above ~750C. The opposite direction reaction is sometimes called the Fischer-Tropsch process. Selective liquid fuel formation is possible with the MHI Airtorch(R) or Insta-Steam Units. Contact MHI for details.
Combination of Greenhouse gasses (also called high temperature greenhouse gas reactions):
CO2(g) + CH4(g) = 2CO(g) + 2H2(g) Feasible above ~650C or via the steam reforming and water shift shown above.
2CH4(g) + H2O(g) +CO2(g)= 3CO(g) + 5H2(g) Well feasible above ~(750-850C) with easy methods for enabling all forms of downstream reduction. MHI reaction.
E.g. products that are reducing gases that can be used for various reducing reactions including cleaning and shiny metal production such as Fe2O3 + 3CO(g) = 2Fe + 3CO2(g) (weak) or Fe2O3 + 3H2(g) = 2Fe + 3H2O(g) above 515C. Note also that CO2(g) + CH4(g)=2C + 2H2O(g) is always feasible at >100C but is extremely weak. Fe2O3 + 2CO(g) + H2(g) = 2Fe + 2CO2(g) + H2O(g) is always feasible but best above 1000C.
It appears that the worst greenhouse gases methane can be converted to non-greenhouse gases CO and H2. These reducing gases can be used for reducing some metal oxides. So either the OAB or Airtorch may be used. At this point catalysts become become important.
Note that several gases can be toxic and only professional involvement is recommended.
What is MHI working on to help with global warming apart from its standard proven approaches? Did you know MHI shares data openly when it is of public interest- of course only whenever it is free to share? Please support us by purchasing MHI products.
Interesting methods below – hint – look carefully at the reactions.
Futuristic reactions. These are discussed only with MHI high value existing partners. License possibilities to technology and trademarks. Contact MHI
CO2(g) + 3H2(g) = CH3OH(l) + H2O(g) above ~1320C Methanol by heating Syngas or just CO2 (g)
Greenhouse gas CO2 can be converted to types of alcohols.
Waste to Fuel reactions can also be considered.
Interesting reactions possible above 1435C:
2C + 4H2O(g) = 2CH3OH(l) + O2(g) Carbon to Methanol (solid to liquid fuel type reaction with hot steam – (use Quasi-R® catalysts)
6CO2(g) + 6H2O(g) = C6H12O6(Sugar -GAa) + 6O2(g) Yes negative free energy at MHI high temperatures. Call MHI.
Waste to Fuel reactions can also be considered and there is a push to make liquid fuels by using a multitude of reactions. The entire focus of these types of reactions has changed because of the CO2 and CH4 green house problems. Ask MHI about simulated photosynthesis and flavor reactions. Click for sample nano-catalyst coupons.
Waste to $-Fuels
Layout OAB 4-900
Instant high quality high amount steam
Waste to Fuel with MHI Products
Use of Syngas – tunable manufacture with MHI Products.
Extremely high yields. Impact the environment with MHI Products.
Key Parameters (typical) for Various Steam Applications
Use the OAB® Steam for Oil Softening of Heavy Oil in Wells and Tanks. Transition towards smart capital expenditure (CAPEX) and innovative operational expenditure (OPEX) are imminent in the oil and gas industry, especially with highly unstable barrel prices. Reduce foot print. Easy to carry. Reduced use of electric and water. Use for Oil Mud. Most Compact.
Safer because no pressure leaks, high temperature kinetics and energy efficiency.
Hot CO2, Hot sCO2 and Hot steam (H2O) highly productive solutions… only from MHI.
Simple SaniZAP Clean dirt and grime in difficult to reach places. First soften and clean with handheld superheated steam then power-blow with hot air. Need more steam – the OAB models are ideal. Steam-soften with the proper superheated MightySteam. Then VTA hot air blow with the powerful VTA-1GC hot air power-blower unit. Simple. No water mess and use of the highest temperature steam. Use for restorative cleaning and de-greasing.
Contact us to see what data we have on Bed-Bug removal with MightySteam and Superheated Steam
Pilot Plant Steam Generator for possible steam reforming, with carbon, bio-products, bio-charcol gassifier or methane and nitrogen for ammonia applications. The steam generators from MHI namely the OAB and HGA devices are very efficient, controllable and clean.
For example the reaction 2N2(g) + 2CH4(g) + 2H2O(g) + O2(g) = 4NH3(g) + carbon oxide by products is a negative free energy feasible reaction at 400C. Or use for bio diesel,or with carbon to produce hydrogen or other clean fuels.
Electric Steam Generator. Foam cutting high speed, low power, no mess with thermal steam cutter. Use best steam that evaporates on cutting. Ultra High Purity Steam. Also called UHP or UHT steam. Textile, continuous heat setting and laundry steam chamber use.
Superheated Steam Generator for use in steam oxidation studies. Use HGA-S or HGA-M.
Continuous steam. Unlimited capacity.
Save big on easy paint removal techniques with MHI steam from enamels to hard paints (view powerpoint – inquire or rapid buy). Can you find a better paint remover? Foam cutting. Thick foam cutting speeds ~1″/s.
Energy Saved for Laundry or Garment pressing. Car seat Pressing. Laundry Use. The energy requirement is approximately 0.15 – 0.30 kWh / kg of linen (source http://www.rabc-wfk.com/module3/Module3_EN.pdf). This is a good number for dry-cleaning but for full steam drying it may be best to use a number like ~1kWh per /kg. If you are using and paying operationally for a 300kW boiler (1,024,327 BTU/hr) (or 30BP); are you dry-cleaning 900 kg (close to a ton of linen) of laundry in an hour? If this is not so please consider OAB instead to save energy. The cost of energy is similar whether gas or electric. Click here for savings from energy efficiency. Garment dewrinkle, heatsetting and textile conditioning in a raoid energy efficient manner.
Seats pressing in rapid demand operations like automobile seats manufacture. At 10 cents per kWh a 300 kW boiler operational cost could be as high as $30 an hour. A 10 kW OAB machine reduces this payment to ~ $1 per hour. Many electric companies offer grants to make capital changes with energy efficient new machinery. Whether a 12 kW OAB may substitute for a 300 kW boiler depends on the application. Most applications where a high velocity jet is required can be met by the OAB® . Please see video in Videos and Media Gallery section.
In many applications a de-Superheater is required. This is a complex mixing of steam and water and very nozzle dependent. The OAB, HGA-S and HGA-M orovide modern solutions for mixing at reliably low cost conditions
Improving starter oxidation for copper tubes. Steam Testing of Pipes.
Steam Copper-tubes for water delivery to start protective oxide (Malakite) barrier in them. Reduces copper contamination and other contaminants from pipes that do not have this starter oxide. Do internal pipes. Please contact MHI for known technical results and referal to the proper EPA laboratories for your carification.. User may need to call government agency for proof of results. Please contact MHI for details.
Steam cycle testing in lined pipe and vessels per ASTM F1545
High Pressure Steam Boiler can be avoided. Laundry boilers, tunnels and other energy improvement uses are possible in the garment and laundry industry. Several levels of efficient cleaning and de-wrinkling Higher temperatures de-wrinkle leather more easily. E.g. Clean fifty pound loads with an OAB® and canopy. The canopy does not need to be a heat dissipating rigid surface!
Choose your own steam bluing/blackening for attractive surfacing. Use steam generator for steam oxidation studies.
Use Process Steam for oil (normal and heavy oil) and natural gas to reduce viscosity.
Heat Processing to make cheese is varied the type of technologies used in practice. The time and temperature programme for heating is determined by the method of heating and the type of cheese. Some cheeses require heating to temperatures above 40°C-56°C (133°F) Normally at 37 – 38°C the activity of the mesophilic lactic acid bacteria is retarded. Time is taken check the acidity, Above 44°C or more the mesophilic bacteria are deactivated, and they are killed if held at 52°C between 10 and 20 minutes. Heating beyond 44°C is typically called scalding. Some types of cheese, such as Emmenthal, Gruyère, Parmesan and Grana, are scalded at temperatures as high as 56°C (133°F) . Some of the most heat-resistant lactic-acid-producing bacteria survive this treatment e.g. Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii“. Credit to http://www.food-info.net/uk/dairy/cheese-production is acknowledged for the above information.
Pure Steam Generator. Milk and Cottage Cheese. Augmentation of process. Significant reduction of energy from unwieldy and high Btu/hr (kW) boilers currently see use.
A frequently asked question is: I do understand that milk products have increased considerable resistance to deterioration when UHT steam is used. However will this denature protein in any way that is bad for me? The answer can be found on many web sites like http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/muscle-mystery-does-denatured-protein-still-make-you-grow.html. Bakery Operation with on demand (on-off) steam. Food processing humidification.Benefits that may also follow from SW-OAB® Steam in addition to saving considerable energy for shrink labeling activities. — OAB® and MightySteam®’s patented heating system
and service allows for an industrial strength steam output.
Continuous Superheated Process Steam for Odor Removal and Other Uses. Carbon Activation. Superheated steam can be used for physical/chemical activation of carbon resulting in enhanced nanoporous and porous structures of carbon ( about 10-(50-80) nm). The resultant carbon is called activated. It is higly porous and activated. This nanoporous/mesoporous microporous structure is expected to enhance the removal of toxic hydro-carbons and other dangers from waste water/water works and from gas. Continuous steam temperature that is required is greater than ~800°C and dry. Please consult MHI for known techniques for start-up of carbon containing canopies or drums. One important requirement for this is the availability of instantaneous steam, within minutes because moisture if present tends to clog pores. The OAB-4 system or the OAB-12 system makes instantaneous steam. Please see video on Videos and Media Gallery.
Electric Superheated Steam. What is the difference between Disinfection and Sterilization? See box below.
Steam temperatures greater up to 1300C.
Steam Sanitation: Studies have shown that even 1 second of residency time of 248°F (120°C) steam is roughly 97% effective against common strains of bacteria1. In controlled experiments, higher temperature steam requires lower residency times to achieve effectiveness. This result most likely follows the common law of chemical kinetics where speed increases exponentially with temperature.
What is the difference between Disinfection, Sanitizing and Sterilization? Sterilization vs. Disinfection vs. Sanitation
There are 3 fairly commonly accepted levels of “clean” in many industries. Sterilization refers to the statistical destruction and removal of all living organisms. Disinfection generally refers to inanimate objects and all vegetative cells, but not spores. Sanitation refers to the reduction of microorganisms to levels considered safe from a public health viewpoint. The official definition of sanitation, according to the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, for food product contact surfaces is a 99.999% (5-log) reduction of contaminants in a 30 second period. For non-product contact surfaces, a 99.9% (3-log) reduction in contamination is necessary. What is anti-microbial cleaning?Sterilization requires 6 to 12 log or more cleaning potency mostly done in steam sterilizers that are approved for this purpose. the antimicrobial market has been largely comprised of chlorine (bleach), ozone, quaternary ammonium compounds (quats), per-acetic acid (PAA), formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde (aldehydes), and hydrogen peroxide. All of these technologies have limitations in addressing sanitization and disinfection needs.Steam is powerful. Se Patents Other published patents have shown superheated steam can clean upto sterilization levels. Patent numbers 8,940,245, 8,945,468, 8,652,403, 8,435,459 and many others that are available. See also http://www.diffen.com/difference/Disinfect_vs_Sterilize
Steam Boiler for Steam Kettles, Processing Mash with Steam, Saving Energy and Materials. Save considerable energy and time. Generally from cold start cut up to 1/3 the time. Will preservatives be reduced by steaming – most likely not?
Industrial Steam Generator and Tunnel for cotton fiber moisture doubling. Moisture in cotton yarn fiber is able to make the fibre more abrasion resistant as well as more fatigue resistant. Use for heat-set and save considerable energy. No need to use vacuum or pressure chambers. Review amazing ROI.
SaniZap® technology is employed in the MightySteam™ line of steam cleaning products and also by the MightySteam™ service which represents a service that provides for the cleaning of interior and exterior surfaces utilizing concentrated super-heated steam for residential, commercial and industrial purposes.
Why is Steaming Better than Boiling for Food:Steaming is preferable to boiling in some cases, because there is no loss of mineral salts nor food substances. The flavor is not so likely to be lost as when food is boiled. Some delicate fish is best cooked by steaming as it does not break up as it might in boiling water. Vegetables prepared in this way prove very palatable, and very often variety is added to the diet by steaming bread, cake, and pudding mixtures and then, provided a crisp outside is desired, placing them in a hot oven to dry out the moist surface.
Did you know the cost of steaming with superheated steam is less than 0.1 UScent per dumpling.
Low Pressure Steam Boilers
Electric Super-heated Steam Generator for heat treating of metal parts for oxidation.Steam heat treat for valve guides and valve seats, gears, oil pump rotors, engine bearing caps, rocker arms, transmission components, shock absorber components, bushing, bearings of many metals copper and bronze included. Refrigerator parts such as pistons, connecting rods and valve plates, general machine parts and home appliance parts like cam parts.
High Pressure Steam Boilers
High Temperature Steam
Low Pressure Steam
Low Pressure Steam Boiler
Steam Generator Boiler/Electric Steam Boiler
Steam Roasting. Activated carbon by steam both Stage 1 and Stage 2 (Steam of 700C and 1100C). Rare-Earth processing by steam. Rare earth metals are a group of 17 elements – lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, lutetium, scandium, yttrium – that appear in low concentrations in the ground.
Traditional boilers yield saturated steam (Tsat and Psat are linked). Note that Steam generators do not have to operate at high pressure for the high temperature. They work at 1 Bar safety. Thus one can get high temperatures without unwieldy pressures – with a steam generator. For example with a boiler one needs a high 10 Bar and even then the saturation temperature is only 180°C -even at 100 Bars the saturation temperature is only 311°C.
Steam generators operate routinely at 300°C, i.e. well above the inversion temperature. If the steam is for heating purposes, please compare the enthalpy and you will be surprised. If the steam is for work purposes please use the work potential row below, the work potential increases with both temperature and pressure. Work potential is measured from 25°C base temperature.
The cost of boilers increases for very high pressure ratings. Traditionally the steam generators offer 95%+ efficiency – boilers could be much lesser and also loose efficiency with pressure ratings. However even at 100 Bars the saturation temperature is only 311°C. Again a fairly easy and routine temperature from the OAB type steam generator.
1 Bar =100000 Pa = 14.5 psi, 10 Bar =1000000 Pa =145 psi, 100 Bar = 107 Pa = 1450.3 psi
Steam-jet cleaning of glassware such as glass-vials with 550°C superheated high quality steam. Results from https://bayzi.com/ohio-state-presentation are only guidelines for biofilm elimination- please verify directly.
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