The Cascade e-Ion Plasma Technology


Simplified Surface Engineering

Just immerse the part in the Cascade e-Ion plume for a few seconds

Stable Thermal Cascade Plasma Generator. CleanElectricFlame®. 

Glass Bending, Optical Data Transfer, Biomedical Coating/ Debur, Tool-bit Reconditioning, Abrasive Wheel, Cast-Iron, Stick Resistant Steel Surfaces, Anti-Seize Treatment for Steels Bearings, Bolts & Bushing, Request Information


Uses for the Cascade e ion

A SmartPlasma Power Device

List of Disruptive Applications Technologies

Create Easy Non-Stick Surfaces for Cooking

Compare Cost/Performance of NoScratch(TM)

Data Glass Shaping

Communication Glass and Decorative Glass

Biomedical Titanium and Zirconium

Rapid Brazing

Compare.  3DBrazing®



Rapid Deburring of threads and surfaces

Improved Machine Tool and Die Performance

Cool to machine - save $$$

Low Wear Surfaces (Automobiles)

Reduce friction. Reduce wear.

High Nitrogen Content Alloy Carbonitriding or Austempering

Dross Reduction



Special techniques for nano-porous surfaces for possible catalyst, solar and antimicrobial use

with a modern open-plasma device..






Use the SmartPlasma device.  Compare  with DLC and other Plasma methods.  Create Carbon Nitrides, Nitrogen Carbon, Borides, Mixed Borides. Hard and Smooth OxyNitride Colors.  High Vickers.  Compound layers in steels form in-situ or by graded layer processing. Use on chromium, molybdenum and managanese steels, titanium alloys, zirconium alloys, diamonds. Oxynitrides are one of the most important new class of materials for use in low wear surfaces, plasmonics, solar cells to glass coatings.  Deburring is enabled by the cascade e-ion beam.  Create Non-stick surfaces for steel and cast iron or treat cell phone glass.  The Cascade e-ion allows for continuous seamless processing for improved tool and die performance. Welcome to the world of two dimensional materials formation of various types.


Microstructure, EDAX and XPS results.


The Cascade e ion processes allow continuous use.  Traditional furnace based batch treatment techniques could be expensive. Batch processes are often inefficient and expensive due to high furnace and facilities costs. Compare processing time in seconds/minutes with long processing times in furnaces and the associated huge energy consumption.  Other costs from batch coaters include frequent maintenance and repair with specialized labor.  Extra steps like plasma cleaning or blanking parts may be required which are mostly not required with the Cascade e-Ion process.  XPS and other fine electronic probes display the fine structure, depth of ionic penetration and new phase formations which are advantageously used.

The application of titanium, zirconium and iron & steel alloys is limited by low shear strength, high coefficient of friction, low hardness and poor wear resistance.  The cascade e-ion is the first process to offer processing within seconds with no space limitations.  Some of the ROI's are astounding. Some truly useful phases of iron nitrocarbides, carbontrides, smooth oxynitrides, compound phases/layers for hardness and high wear resistance, epsilon phases, and titania or other antimicrobial nanostructures may be experienced. Experience also the possibilities of rapid bulk heat treating and quick brazing with very low operational costs  - often less than a cent per part.   Create conditions for chromium nitrides, titanium nitrides, tantalum, niobium and zirconium oxynitrides, manganese (oxy)nitrides, vanadium nitrides, oxycarbides, aluminides and aluminum/magnesium/silicon nitrides and oxynitrides (including composite combinations or particulate,fiber, functionally graded or grated layers).  Lanthanum, perovskite Oxynitrides for photocatalytic power and photoconductivity. Ion nitride yittria zirconia films. Create functionally graded or grated layers with oxynitrides, oxides, inorganic elements, nitrides and many more.   Change the adherence in organic molecules by plasma polymerization on goggles, pastics, mold surfaces and other parts by direct application. Combust coal and Biomass to less release of aromatics and complete combustionPlease contact MHI.

Case Studies are discussed that range from tool bit reconditioning to easy surface improvement of steels and cast irons.  Bearings, axles, rails, deep-dishes, pans, broaches, drills, carbide drills, cast irons, simple parts like nail clippers and scissors to complex parts that hold up space mirrors and much more can be GoldenBlue® treated effortlessly with the cascade e-ion plume. Enjoy the benefit of high temperatures to create smooth and hard surfaces now made easily.

Choice of Plasma Plumes (chose any gas plus choose circular, wide area or slot). Click on: What is Cascade e-ion? for information on color of plume and color of surfaces 


Wide Area

Spaced Slot


circular plume


Oxynitride Coloring


Is there a simple way to tell if the Cascade e-Ion Plume treated part is smoother? Yes, when nitrided or oxy-nitrided with the GoldenBlue® treatment, the swage-lock, high temperature bolt, ball/roller bearing or machine tool should make less noise when machining, or when putting on the nut.   Less noise is an indicator of smoothness. 

How is wear reduced?  Wear is caused by material loss by tribological processes.  The GoldenBlue® reduces galling, adhesion, abrasion and tribo-oxidation depending on the alloy. See samples in the Auto Industry. Rapid new techniques for Austempering and Martempering.

Figures shows Cascade e-Ion Machines.  Permanently color your hard surface.

Bring your designs to life with beautiful colors and improved engineering surfaces


Simplified Surface Engineering Processing: Simply immerse in the Cascade e-Ion Plume

For Cascade e-Ion

- Heat up rate 100K/s (Kelvin per second).  Ionic heat transfer.
- Price per part for several small parts using only air and electric ~ 0.2US¢/part.

Price of Energy: The price of energy depends on the source but is not that different between different forms of energies that one can use (e.g. gas or electric). Comparisons are given for example on Duke Energy. In the US, when comparing gas and electric a rule of thumb is that gas energy is about 75% lower cost when compared with the same quantity of electric energy. However electric machines are generally much more efficient than gas heaters. For example, the OAB or Cascade e-ion can save you even 90% of traditional energy use in relevant applications. These new machines can dramatically influence operational costs. Often using electric heating is less polluting at the use point. Additionally, electric heaters can be efficiently/accurately controlled. Both KWhr and Therm are units of energy.

1kJ (KiloJoule) = 0.9485 BTU=0.0002778 kWhr. One Million BTU (MBTU) = 10.002 Therm (US). Electric energy is normally priced for every KWhr used, while gas is priced by the number of Therms used.

Source: MHI Energy efficiency

MHI Cascade e-IonThe Cascade CleanElectricFlame® technology uses just electricity and air (or other gasses if required, like Nitrogen, Argon or Forming Gas) leaving behind no residues. MHI's Cascade e-Ion Plasma uses less energy, produces hardly any noise and is safer than traditional heating methods. It is one of the most special plumes available. The Cascade e-Ion systems are available for use with hard alloys, plastics, metals, glass forming, ceramics, composites and a number of other materials - even food or wood. The Cascade e-Ion devices can be used for sintering, for example, titanium and carbon mixed powders in minutes. Large surface plates are easily moved under the beam.. The CleanElectricFlame® provides a Cascade e-Ion environment.

The Cascade e-Ion can bend, nitride, creat surface borides like Zirconium diboride and alloys, and for inducing colorful smooth surface oxynitride of many materials including manganese, chromium, titanium, copper/ graphite and glass.

Possible use for automotive axles, pistons, tappets, piston rings, valve stems, guides crank shafts with quick low cost nitriding(O) - even for space re-entry surfacing. The CleanElectricFlame® provides a new type of reducing environment.  Even difficult materials like copper and tungsten-copper alloys have a shiny finish after the Cascade e-Ion plume treatment. In situ growth of nitrides and oxynitrides is a special "open" feature that only the plume from the Cascade e-ion can accomplish. Adopt early. Early stage pricing and possible MHI partner financing available.  MHI offers an attractive MHI-Never-Down program. Please ask for details on the Cascade e-Ion Models, like the unique the MHI-Never-Down program warranty-type features and, if required, MHI Financing. Click on the left navigation bar "solutions" to view several of the case studies. Contact MHI for tool energy savings and astounding ROI possibilities for engine valve steels like EN grades, 21-4N, 52000 and others.

  1. Customize for deposition type and shape. Contact MHI.
  2. Compare price and energy efficiency with ordinary transferred arc or induction plasma deposition or laser.
    No electrodes to change in cascade plasmas.
  3. Improve Surfaces from Tool bits, Non-stick to Electrical.  Titanium Oxynitride-Nitride, Yittria Zirconia (with dopants), Boron Carbide, Silicon Carbide, Molybdenum diSilicide.
  4. Super-ionic bending and Ionic Surface Hardened Glass and Nano Surface Depositions.
  5. WC and other high wear resistant surfaces for tool bits.
  6. Tubes and complex shapes. Thick Alumina on Aluminum.  In situ nitriding of tubes for dies.
  7. Easily make functionally graded coatings.
  8. Custom Turnkey Solutions with Complete Electronic Controls. Increase endurance of stamping and hot working dies, 
  9. Highly stable e-Ion cascade thermal plasma™
  10. New ionic low-cost surface treating and deposition.  Minimize pollution and minimize noise - improve energy efficiency.
  11. Titanium Oxynitride Nitride coatings on HSS and other surfaces.  Easy oxynitride or nitride nitride formers are Ti, V, Zr, Al, Mn, Mo,Fr, Cr and many others.  In addition various eta phases carbon-niitrides and borides are possible.
  12. Non-Stick high hardness metallic surfaces
  13. MHI provides coating for Nickel Aluminide formation with the cascade e ion.   Contact MHI.
  14. Petrochemical: reforming furnaces, cracking furnaces, pyrolysis and fired heaters,

  15. Clean aluminum production.
  16. Clean Coal Combustion and Ignition (reduced aromatics).
  17. VOC cleaning.
  18. Steel and Heat treatment: radiant tubes, furnace rolls

  19. Glass making industry: Roll barrels for float glass line

  20. Color of surfaces. Contact MHI for Edax, Microstructure and XPS results where available.
  21. Aircraft and automobile engine parts
  22. Printing on plastic food containers
  23. Energy-efficient window coatings
  24. Safe drinking water
  25. Voice and data communications components
  26. Waste processing
  27. Coatings and films
  28. Electronic computer chips and integrated circuits
  29. Advanced materials (e.g., ceramics)
  30. High-efficiency lighting
  31. Plasma enhanced chemistry
  32. Surface cleaning
  33. Processing of plastics
  34. Gas treatment
  35. Spraying of materials
  36. Chemical analysis
  37. Semiconductor production for computers
  38. TVs and electronics
  39. Sterilization of medical tools


From surface crystal growth technology to surface nitriding, the Cascade e-Ion places the technical process and value-addition possibilities squarely in the hands of innovators of tool-bits, steel parts, cast iron and steel manufacturers-both primary and secondary non-stick-surface manufacturers, solar cell materials and shapes, hydrogen storage and wafer manufacturers - thus giving everyone new market opportunities.  The Cascade e-Ion makes it extremely feasible to provide dross reducing covers for melting metals. The DRO models are particularly well designed for this type of solution. The cascade e-ion can make magnets better for corrosion resistance or high temperature oxidation.  How do you know that the surface is harder?  Bounce the ball bearing and watch if it bounces higher than the non-coated bearing.

MHI Anti-Seize Treatment (Bearings, Bolts, Bushings)

Learn More About Cascade e-Ion Plasma Technology

Cascade e ion booms

What is Cascade e-Ion Plasma | Extremely Wide Area Plasma (with LIP) | Extremely Rapid Depositor De-e-Ion Models with arrangements possible for trials on surface reconditioning with purchased units.

  1. Save energy: use ~15kW not ~150kW.  In dollars? Please click here.
  2. Use air as input gas almost for all applications because of the heavy nitrogen ions in plume.
  3. Easy port for steam and any other gases.
  4. If using other gas then OK to switch to air when not in use.
  5. Use time is short.  Grow unusual smooth surfaces within seconds.
  6. Enjoy flexibility of operation (just immerse or impinge plume on part).
  7. Good control over the depth of "white layer" so that finish lapping is not required
  8. Particularly suitable for large or small batch production.
  9. Large or heavy components which normally are not be treated by conventional plasma (because of a lack of process control) can now be economically nitrided/oxynitrided.
  10. Deburr.
  11. Enjoy MHI-Never-Down Program (enrollment is free up 2016 December).
  12. Quick installation and use.
  13. Best of MHI Sales and Service.
  14. 3DBrazing and 4DSintering®are a registered trademarks of MHI.

Contact Us for a Demonstration

We may not yet have all the answers on every application, so we may not be sure if the Cascade e-Ion Plasma is always right for you. However, for most surfaces the CleanElectricFlame provides the best of plasma, ion-implantation and modified chemical species, enough to warrant a trial (payment may be required) on your part. Regardless of whether we know what the treatment offers for a very specific untested surface, we can certainly arrange to have your part treated during a live video conference. Contact MHI. It is worth a try!

Improved Energy Efficiency From:


a)  When the part or tool lasts longer or can be used at  higher speeds.

b)  The tool requires lesser number of replacements.

c)  When dry machining is possible. Dry machining has great potential for improved energy and resource efficiency.

d)  The process for manufacturing of the tool uses the lowest energy procedure so that the total energy cycle is minimum. ( with the Cascade e-Ion).


Please compare GoldenBlue® treated with other tools/drills and bits.

Richard Feynman* implied that real discovery was somewhat like finding a new type of flame

Is MHI's Stable Cascade E-ion a new type of flame - made from just air/electric?



About the Cascade e-Ion Technology

The Cascade e-Ion technology is a Stable Thermal Cascade Plasma Generator.   Also called the CleanElectricFlame®.  The break through process produces a high watt density atmospheric pressure-level plasma plume, capable of rapidly cleaning, deburring, depositing, growing, hardening, joining, reacting of gaseous to metallic materials and many more applications like rapid brazing, rapid heat treatment, and ultra-low cost of total energy degradation.


Customer Testimonial.  "I had a look at your table comparing the cost and various features of  (standard RF) plasma nitriding and MHI (Cascade) e-ion plasma nitriding machines and the advantages of the later are remarkable. This type of comparison ......... an alluring proposition for any stakeholder to purchase such an equipment".

Cascade e-Ion Plasma technology uses electricity and just air (or any other gas) to produce a CleanElectricFlame® plume that contains ions, electrons, radiation and hot gas. It is a versatile tool for several possible applications. To the best of our knowledge this is the only plasma generator that offers close to 100% power transfer - thus making it a unique high-efficiency directed energy source.  Applications could include the formation of a single layer of atoms (or stacks), with far-reaching potential. Known as two-dimensional materials, this class has grown within the past few years to include lattice-like layers of carbon (graphene), boron (borophene), hexagonal boron nitride (white graphene), silicon (silicene), phosphorous (phosphorene) and 2d oxycarbonitrides or special carbon nitrogen compounds. Cascade e-Ion applications page

On account of the number of ions that are quickly supplied to a part the Cascade e-Ion plasma finds uses in machine-tool development of new and reconditioning machine tools, non-stick surfaces, clean glass bending, covers for liquid metals, plastics (polymerization and functionalization), metals (heat treatment of semiconductors, metal finishing, nano-deposition and brazing and related operations). The machines also find use in ceramics (ceramic surface modification, nano-treatment and other modern materials from new process type use).   Please click through to our Cascade e-Ion applications page for typical solutions. Shown below are the first ionization energy of gases as a function of the atomic number.  When used for surface treating, XPS and other electronic probes display the fine (nano or surface quantum dot) structure, depth of ionic penetration and many undiscovered new phase formations which may be used advantageously for applications.


Pictures of wide area plasma
Videos of wide area plasma



                               Enthalpy vs state of matter                                                    Cascade eIon Possibilities Plasma Models

What can the Cascade e-Ion Plasma CleanElectricFlame do for your industry?

Cascade e-Ion Plasma Case Studies Solutions.  The GoldenBlue™  Surface and Process Engineering.

Available Cascade e-Ion Plasma™ Models

Multi-gas inputs are standard for e-ion and S-e-Ion models  Find out more for inert and hydrogen gas, carbon containing gases and steam?

DRO models are for melt dross reduction. G models are for glass shaping.

MHI offers the only

Plasma-vittori™ tubes to deflect/spray the plasma beam.  Find out more?

Contactl MHI for which specific part number can be used for a given application.



Cascade e-Ion-10


Cascade e-Ion-14



Cascade S-e-Ion-10


Cascade S-e-Ion-14










For auto parts hardness and smoothness experience from tappets to pins and other uses



For Glass bending and glass smoothness experience





*EIZ is with custom attachment of materials handing systems for applications. Do 1000 parts per hour and save energy and cost.

E Ion machines and typical materials transfer belt rotor or boom

E Ion machines and typical materials transfer belt rotor or boom E Ion machines and typical materials transfer belt rotor or boom E Ion machines and typical materials transfer belt rotor or boom

Materials handling Stages. Generally in user scope. This is typically discussed with user after the user has gained direct experience with the CleanElectricPlume®

Cascade e-Ion Plasma™ Apertures


Multi-exit (LIP)


Wide-slit with EIZ-C

G Model use Multi Plume

Single Plasma Plume Intense

Wide e-Ion Flow

Diffusion e-Ion Flow

Focused e-Ion Flow

Narrow e-Ion Flow

(Please request quotation from MHI). 

New* R&D ModelDiscounted almost 50% for academic institutions who are at least one year old existing MHI customers.

There are specific accessories offered for specific technologies.


  Cascade e-ion EIZ layoutCascade e-ion layout 


GoldenBlue® Case Studies for Machining.

Easy multi color tool-bit reconditioning with the cascade e-ion family of machines.

Less machine chatter, reduced galling, enhanced life and a smoother cut is always a good outcome.


MHI offers a GoldenBlue® thermal plasma reconditioning and nitride coating service whereby GoldenBlue coating is applied to tooling, parts and surfaces. This application will provide greater hardness,  increase wear resistance and extend surface life for a variety of materials and alloys.  The GoldenBlue® service is available through MHI as well as from approved vendors.



Is there a simple way to tell if the Cascade e-Ion Plume treated part is smoother?   Less noise is an indicator of smoothness for a ball bearing, roller bearing or other part.

How do you know that the surface is harder?  Bounce the ball bearing and watch if it bounces higher than the non-coated? 

What is GoldenBlue®?

The insitu-growth coating that forms on exposure to the cascade e-Ion beam very often has low lubricity and high surface hardness.  Saves energy of machining. Saves tool resources and offers many more benefits. Please have your prototype tested free at MHI and if convinced then please consider the purchase the cascade e-ion or send to MHI for paid service. Improved coatings on high speed machine tools, cutting knives, blades and even for recoating thin razor blades when coated properly. Transform and re-use (recoat) at will, resharpening when possible.

Glass Bending Machine Boom

GoldenBlue® is the trade name for the treatment service of multi color high-value coatings. The composition depends on the substrate. It is a sometimes a Fe-Ti-Al-N-W-C type coating for HSS. One which is which is ultra-hard and ultra-smooth. Low coefficient of friction ~0.1 ( number depends on surface). The hardness and lubricity depend on the substrate and coating thickness. A hardness of about 13GPa is equivalent to a Rockwell C of about 75 Rc however Rockwell C scale is not really meant for such high hardness or coatings. The Cascade e-Ion machines offer easy nitriding/oxynitride of tungsten cobalt, stainless and titanium alloys (almost all transition metal alloys). High hardness, good lubricity and multi-element stable coatings are made in situ by the cascade e-Ion plume impingement.

A large surface area treatment, when required, does not present a problem. For example if rails were GoldenBlue® service treated it does not present a problem for size. Consider for automobile parts from engine parts to shafts and gears. When you purchase a machine you are freely enrolled in the expanding cascade e-ion group knowledge base. The coatings may be particularly useful for bolts and nuts that seize during operations i.e. for making non-seizing surfaces for automobiles, aircraft and other high temperature engine parts like bolts even for corrosive outboards. Each situation may be different, however MHI will happily do limited free-parts for your verification while this offer lasts. Please contact MHI for details. It is a new type of heat treatment with vast possibilities. MHI has introductory prices that are well below lasers, very large vacuum and gas furnaces or vacuum ion-nitriders 


Oxynitride or Carbo-oxynitride variations


GoldenBlue®Ô  - this is a trademark to signify the multi-color hard in situ coating. 


Functionally Graded


>3000 Vickers (nano) as an example.  


One of the best for high hardness, low coefficient of friction, improved drilling speeds and other benefits like less heat and less chatter depending on substrate. Use for stainless to hardened die steel to even ceramics.

Try the GoldenBlue® service.  The process is simple.  Immerse or move the part in or under the special CleanElectricFlame that is produced by the Cascade e-Ion.  

Toolbit Treated GoldenBlue

Toolbit Treated GoldenBlue Toolbit Treated GoldenBlue

Process for about ten to fifteen seconds (for a inch or so thick part) for the build up of a four or five micron coating thickness of the type A or type B GoldenBluereg; coating. The expectation one should have is for about a 15% tool life speed improvement per hole, over the uncoated (such an improvement is in the same range as the regular TiN commercial coatings, at least as noted in our limited trials). The total life improvement could be almost double (depends on part size and type).  The GoldenBlue® - B offers even better expectations of about a 25% improvement in speed over a regular HSS-uncoated. These results are not guaranteed as they dependent on specific tool type and use.

Improve carbide bits:  Yes - coating is feasible on end-mill carbide inserts. In situ-coat many types of punches, dies, and other surface.

Please do not hesitate to send us your specific tool or typical surface for trials so that your specific tool or surface can be coated for you. We can also determine if your tool bit may be reconditioned to GoldenBlue®grade. 

Early stage, first time use customer testimonial:   "We ran one of the inserts on 17-4 stainless steel on our CNC lathe........The coating did seem to make a difference. I would say at least 15 to 20% better than without it.  I ran the small insert on 1045 steel. Bored 40pc with 2 passes for each bore. One thing I noticed right off the bat was, the coating gave an improved finish over a standard insert finish. I did not have to change insert and finished all 40 pcs without the tool breaking down!"

MHI to Customer: Thank you so much for sharing the result.  Please allow us to express our gratitude and permit us to do more of your tools - of course at no charge.

Try us out at no-obligation while this offer lasts.

The available technology for surfaces and tool bit is changing rapidly.  How does one compare drills and other such tools?   The following check list may assist your evaluation. 

(1) For the same sharpness (radius of the edge), compare drill or cutting time,.  (2) For same sharpness, compare the life of tool before it begins to screech or leave behind burns, (3) compare the overall cost of the value addition i.e. compare the improvement per unit cost including the cost of the of tool, cost of operations, cost of change/wait period, (4) determine whether the tool may be reused after coating and or after re-sharpening, and (5) if applicable, whether a sharpened tool may be recoated.  

With the cascade e-Ion processed tools we saw better drill speed (we were able to double the speed in a drilling experiment), improved sphericity of hole, cleaner breakthroughs, smoother tapping control for tapping tools.  All this results in more energy efficiency during manufacture and drilling/tapping because of the Goldenblue®  service treatment.

With the Cascade e-Ion processed surfaces we saw improved smoothness as measured by chatter, quality of the cut, with no seizing and less heat generation. Thus giving confident and longer lasting tool expectations.

Common high speed steel HSS composition  grades (by %wt. nominal)























































MHI CleanElectricFlame 
Contact Us for insert information

The smoothest and sharpest. Contact us for comparison information.

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The smoothest and sharpest. Contact us for comparison information.

Save energy.  Repair rapidly at will.  Enjoy improved performance.

Cascade e-Ion Models


MHI's unique Cascade e-Ion Plasma™ features novel technology that allows it to replace existing processes while simultaneously improving efficiency and productivity. Immerse in CleanElectricFlame® for non line-of-sight processing or BendHeat™ requirements.  The unique plume allows direct rapid processing of surfaces and maintain cleanliness even for air processing.

Cascade e-Ion Plasma™ and Machine Use

(Patented products and treatments, available only from MHI)

Hard Coat or refurbish tool bits, drill bits, machine tools. Save energy, double drilling speed, more life and improve ease of tapping.


Nitride biomedical parts, hardface, oxynitride, add silicides. Finish processing in seconds. Use gas of choice including only air for nitriding


Brazing Aluminum to Steel to Magnesium, Aluminum to Magnesium, Plus other combinations of brazing ferrous to nonferrous metals.  3DBrazing® and 4DSintering® are a registered trademarks of MHI.

Rapid Deburring and Smoothing from Metals to Plastics.  Smooth Finishing.  Ionic Deburring and e-Ion Peening if Biomedical Parts.  Titanium Nitriding.  Carbon Nitriding.  NitroCarburizing.  Please call MHI.

Clean bending or shaping of electronic glass

Hard non-stick within seconds.  Rapid processing.  Simple.

Nickel or Cobalt Alloy Brazing and Hardfacing Nickel or Cobalt Alloys.  Request FREE White Paper Rapid tool-bit manufacture of WC-Co with embedded ceramic particles

High-intensity die heating similar exceeding performance by Induction, SW-IR or Laser. Please contact with request for free-report for heating rate and non-line of sight uniform heating.

Plastic Surface Functional Manipulation (please download ideation brochure).Plasma Ideation Brochure.

Surface treatment without grounding object. Possibilities from water to paper and pulp industry.  Possibly use for activating carbon or other surfaces by the ion charge and temperature in the CleanEletricFlame.

Active Metal Brazing & Ceramic Brazing

Surface sintering and sealing

Plastic welding or layering or quick layer adhesive bond formation.  Biomedical coatings with De-e-Ion.  Simple, safe, easy.  Easy ability to create bio-inspired surfaces

Create Hydrophilic or Hydrophobic surfaces.



super hydro phobic?MHI Cascade e-Ion Plume

Smoothing and conditioning. Connect to air/gas source and electric. Small foot-print. Use for metallic deburring specially for biomedical parts for example made from Titanium.  Cleaning extruded plastics.  Avoid toxic chemicals.  Unique power adjustments possible. High value parts such as transportation  (Land based, water based or air and space based).  Ecological solutions, for health reliability monitoring of parts for inspection" Plasma Ideation BrochureScratch test yields COF ~0.1 on coated stainless 304.

Cofficient of FrictionG Model use

Dross Reduction in Metallic Liquid Melting and Holding Furnaces. 

The Cascade e-Ion is used to melt or cover melts without the need for the chemicals that are used currently to prevent metal loss from slag formation.  Two pictures shown below - a conventional heater/burner was replaced with the Cascade e-Ion melt from air plasma.  Note the significant reduction in slag and better quality of the overall melt (now shiny). (Download Plasma Applications for Aluminum Supplement). The use of the Cascade e-Ion leads to substantial savings in metal recovery accompanied with reductions in the use and disposal of harsh chemicals.  Use for aluminum, silver liquation and other dross as the special reducing ionic beam comes into play. Large savings and very high ROI for air cascade e-ion cover for aluminum, zinc bismuth, silver, gold, lead and other metals for refining, beneficiating or separation as applicable.

  Great recovery  Plasma & Aluminum Melting

Dross reduction without chemicals


Use De-e-Ion™ for cleaning and simultaneous application of nano surfaces, dyes and other defect markers.


Diamond surface coating and Nano-silica powder





Nitrides, Yittria Zirconia, Boron Carbide, Silicon Carbide, Molybdenum diSilicide.

Titanium Nitride (from air through the cascade e-ion)

Glass and Nano Surface Depositions.

WC and other high wear resistant surfaces for tool bits.

Tubes and complex shapes. 




Thin Film Deposition.  Molybdenum DiSilicide by ionic deposition and deposition of other nitrides and carbides.  Quick ion-assisted deposition. Thermal barrier coatings including functionally graded coatings with both ceramics and metals. Easy use with precursors.

Improve surface adhesion and wettability.  Deposit carbides, nitrides, borides, phosphides sulfides and more in a graded fashion for various functional uses.

3DBrazing® (Multi-dimensional Brazing)

4DSintering® (Multi-dimensional Sintering at rapid cascade-ionic speeds)

Industry Specific Use

Ion/Plasma Nitriding, Rapid Diffusion Brazing, Tool-bit repair, Glass bending, Diffusion, brazing, Output Shaft Hardening, Horizontal Drive Bar Hardening, Shock Absorber Stem Hardening, Axle Shaft Hardening, Constant Velocity Joint Hardening, Hardening of power take-off, Shaft Hardening, Bolt Head Hardening, Heating of titanium and/or stainless steel wires , Hard Metal Tool Brazing, Resistance Brazing, Gauge Brazing, On-line tempering of mechanical parts, Shrink Fitting, Hardening and tempering of chains, Agricultural Tool Sectional Hardening, Drive Shaft Hardening, Stub Shaft Hardening, Power Transmission Shaft Hardening, High Wear Application Hardening, Automotive Axle Shaft Hardening, Internal & External Tube Brazing, Honeycomb brazing, Oil & Gas Wear Resistance Surface Treating, Rapid Tool Bit Manufacturing (WC-Cobalt), Manufacturing Shiny Parts without Reducing Gas. Copper Brazing, Low to mid-carbon steel heat-treatment (4140 grade), Bio Implants of Plastics, Cobalt alloys or Titanium alloys for various types of surface enhancements from antimicrobial to best fusion with base metal, Decontamination, Textile Processing, Non-line of Sight Heat Processing, Fluorocarbon deposition, Fluoropolymer deposition, Silicon Deposition, Rapid Epoxy Deposition and Curing, Glass Substrate Deposition, Electronic Polymer Applications, MEMS, Carbon Nanotube or Fiber Production, Compare to electron or laser beam Melting RTP processing, annealing of semiconductors like Si, SiC, Diamond and GaN.  Ionic synthesis methods or ion-assisted methods for improving luminescent properties of nitrides, silicates and phosphors. Electronic Materials Fabrication.   Most Nitrides and Oxynitrides display very low wear rates.  The rate for chalk in comparison, one that has low wear resistance, is in the order of 10**-2mm3/Nm, and that of diamonds is between 10**-9 and 10**-10 mm3/Nm.

The Cascade e-Ion applications include those in extractive metallurgy, mining and ore separation, with uses that enable better collection, beneficiation, refinement of precious metals, and metal/metal oxide reduction and or separation.  The energy savings techniques that allow possibilities of change from 200kW machines to 15 kW cascade e-ion machines, embrace particle sintering to controlled oxidative separation.  The potential uses for the  cascade e-Ion are for augmenting chemical-free misch-metal and precious metal production.  Please contact MHI for more details.

The Cascade e-ion offers a good return on investment (ROI) for several applications such as melt covers, dielectric rapid processing, nitriding and a host of other applications.



Comparisons with directed energy beam systems (Laser, Electron Beam to Sunlight). Note that the CleanElectricFlame® can be used as a narrow or wide area source (beam).  Some comparisons withLaser to Sunlight are provided.  

(All information in general comparison tables like the ones shown below should only to be treated as approximate or indicative of order of magnitude)


Cascade e-Ion Plasma™


Electron Beam




Surface Impact

Beam 250mm diameter, large impact, improves productivity.  Large area allows for CleanElectricFlame® soaking at various power settings.

Commonly available average beam size is about 2mm

Commonly less than 0.5mm beam


Depth varies with frequency of machine.



Yes, even for dissimilar materials

Yes, limited by beam parameters

Yes, limited by beam parameters

Very rare possibilities

No for non-metals or poor electrical conductors like ceramics or plastics

Yes when metallic. Coils need to couple and sometimes be formed into complex shapes.

Relative Cost of Gas.  Compared to Air

Air 1
Nitrogen 10
Hydrogen 40
Argon 60
Helium 210
High kW







Vacuum Always Required?

No vacuum required.

Plasmize air or other gases.




Cannot be used with metal.

Power Density

106-109 W/m2

106-108 W/m2 for commonly used industrial CO2 continuous lasers. Depends on laser type.

~106 W/m2 Depends on acceleration voltage and wavelength of beam

Low: about 1 to 2 kW for entire chamber.�Power density is low for surface. Bulk volume dominates as major term for power density.

Efficiency depends on coil spacing, frequency and type of materials keep in coil.

1.3 x103 W/m2 (average)

Water Requirement

None.  Adds to High Energy Efficiency.




Extremely high


Energy Efficiency

Very high

Very low

Very low


Very Low



The relative price to use a gas or maintain vacuum is given above. .The SmartPlasma(TM) Cascade e-Ion machine can be used with air as the gas input.

Surface Deposition Comparisons


Cascade de-e-Ion Plasma™


Electron Beam

Deposit Rate

Very high, continuous, flexible for even Colloids and gels.


Medium, discontinuous

Species Deposited

Atoms and Ions. 

Atoms and Ions

Mostly Atoms

Complex Shaped Objects

Good/Excellent, varying uniformity


Poor, based on line of sight

Alloy Depositing




Simultaneous Gas Heating




Substrate Heating




Operational Costs and Capital Cost Small High High


Relative price to use a gas or maintain vacuum is given above. .The smart Cascade e-Ion machine can be used with air as the gas input.

Comparison Price with Conventional Batch Type Ion Nitriding Machine



RF Type

Small Volume


RF Type


Cascade e-Ion System

Working volume, m3


(*we encourage user to compare prices by themselves as discounts, exchange rate and other issues may impact the prices discussed).  Only rough estimates are shown in this table.

0.1m3 (~3.5 cu.ft).

Price about $100,000

10m3 (~350 cu.ft)

Prices start at $500,000

Unlimited Volume

Call or Contact MHI

Working surface diameter x height estimate

500 mm by 610 mm

1100 mm by 5100 mm

Unlimited because it is disconnected from machine features.

Draw to Part Power Efficiency

 1-5 % typical

over 90% typical

Typical Machine

~20 / 25 kW

~200 kW

200kW operational price is about US$32000 per 200 days/ year @10¢/KWhr and 8 hrs of use per day


From 3kW-20kW.  Several Powers offered.

Working gases

Mostly inert or non oxidizing.

Nitrogen, hydrogen, ammonia, propane, natural gas, methane, argon

Includes Air and Steam Nitrogen and other others as required.

Typical Operation Pressure

1 - 8 millibar.  Vacuum required.  Costly.

No Vacuum Requirement.

1 atmosphere

Selection Guide and Comparison

Colors on surface. Cascade e-Ion can be Air Plasma.  Please contact MHI.

(All information in general comparison tables like the ones shown below should only to be treated as approximate or indicative of order of magnitude)


Type of Machine

Surface Improvement Type


Best Outcome

Property Enhancement


Cascade e-Ion

SE Models


New* R&D ModelDiscounted almost 50% for academic institutions who are existing MHI customers.

In-situ growth.

High integrity with base alloy.


Cascade e-Ion process generally produce smoother surfaces when compared to gas process.


In-situ color your hard surface


Nano-10 microns

Depends on material, mechanism and process conditions.   Also depends on solid solution and other possibilities.


1000nm=1 micron





Nitrides e.g. TiN and TiON.
Enhanced SiC and Ti(C,N,O)
Si3N4 and variations. Epsilon and Gamma types.

Galling and Wear
Extreme Resistance
Non Stick
Corrosion Resistant
Bearings and Anti Seize
Anti friction
Cell Phones
Low friction coefficient

Machine Tools. Auto Parts including suspension and engine
Cast Iron
Die Steel
Stainless Steel

SE and NE Models

Deposition and Surface layering including thick oxide formation

Nano-Microns- mm depends on objective. Cascade e-Ion assisted rapid deposition.

Alumina, Ni-Cr-Mo,
Diamond Coatings

Dense and Hard Overlay
Prevent Biofilms.

Power Industry
Paper & Pulp


Functionalization of polymers

Molecular Size

Polymeric and composites

Wetting and Antimicrobial

Soft Matter Industries

DRO Cascade

Not a coating

Use for oxide control

Lower dross and waste

Clean metal

Aluminum melts primary and secondary. Other liquid metals like silver, bismuth, zinc etc.

Cascade EIZ-C

Deburr, ionic clean.

Surface burrs may be removed


Clean and/or de-burr

Lower RMS or removal of debris

Metals and Ceramics

Cascade e-Ion with Slit Aperture

Bend Glass


SiAlON or AlON

Smooth bend, water repellent

Cell phone, tablets, optical data transfer



1 - 5 μm (40 - 200 μin)

Ti (C,N)

Wear resistance

Machine tools



1 - 50 μm (40 - 2000 μin)


Wear resistance

Fiber coatings


Baked polymers

1 - 10 μm (40 - 400 μin)


Corrosion resistance, aesthetics



Thermal spray

0.04 - 3 mm (0.0015 - 0.12 in)

Ceramics and metallic alloys

Wear resistance, corrosion resistance



Hard chromium plate

10 - 100 μm (400 - 4000 μin)


Wear resistance



Weld overlay

0.5 - 5 mm (0.02 - 0.2 in)

Steel, stellite

Wear resistance




1 - 5 μm (40 - 200 μin)


Corrosion resistance

Steel sheet


Braze overlay

10 - 100 μm (400 - 4000 μin)

Interface Integrety


Paper and Pulp

CleanElectricFlame® Technology

Compare High Power CleanElectricFlame® use to Flame/Combustion

CleanElectricFlame™. Nitrogen e-Ion Plasma™ Plume (possible species include N2, N2+, N+, N, e-). Discharge is into room air conditions. The heating system can be used for composite curing or heat treating on large surface areas of several square meters.

e-Ion Plasma CleanElectricFlame LIP GLASS PLUME


Combustion Flame
(Conventional Plume)

MHI Advanced LIP System GEN 3
(CleanElectricFlame® Plume)

Emissions, Health & Environment

  • Likely to produce CO2, SO2 and soot
  • Uses combustion gas inputs of fuel and air, commonly requiring plumbing
  • Typical 20,000 BTU/hr (5.858kW) burners produce about 22 moles of greenhouse gasses per hour
  • Fossil fuel powered combustion often  leads to toxic by products such as Carbon Monoxide
  • Surfaces impacted by flame may be contaminated with small size soot-like particles.

Pounds of Carbon Dioxide per One Million BTU of burn


Diesel fuel /heating oil






Natural gas


E-Ion, HGA or OAB at device  0.0


  • CleanElectricFlame™ technology produces no CO2, SO2 or soot as a byproduct
  • No toxic emissions.  Air is typical input.
  • Electricity powered, no plumbing or piping needed
  • No venting required
  • Uses only air input, no other gasses<
  • No greenhouse gasses
  • Air to Air. It's like changing your combustion flame to an electric flame
  • Highly efficient, saving on energy costs
  • Non-toxic
  • No residues left because of process
  • Improves productivity
  • May improve shelf life and quality of products

Process Impact

  • Narrow area impact when requiring intense flame, non-uniform heat application
  • Uniformity requirements may require multiple burners
  • User configurable width of plume
  • Higher efficiency
  • Requires less monitoring, saving on labor costs

Explosion Hazards

  • Highly combustible, volatile
  • Incomplete combustion may be a down-stream fire hazard
  • No combustible gasses used as inputs
  • LIP systems offer integrated over-temperature controls

Energy Efficiency

  • Flames are energy inefficient, with only around 10% of their energy able to be utilized for heat as quantized radiation may dissipate heat
  • Over 90% energy efficient
  • Realized energy savings may approach 80%. (A 30kW combustible flame may be replaced by a 6kW plasma plume)


  • Lack of precise control
  • Frequent quality control issues
  • Precise
  • Available built-in safety controls including an over-temperature shut-off


    • Noisy combustion process
  • Silent


  • Noxious odor is often noted from combustion byproducts
  • Odorless
  • Clean Process

Cost of Operations

  • Consumes expensive reactant gasses
  • Frequent downtime leads to lost revenues and costs of repair
  • Higher insurance and other costs because of emissions and other flame hazards
  • Uses air and electricity
  • No reliance on supply of combustibles
  • Less downtime, less lost revenues, less cost of repairs
  • Possibility of lower insurance premiums from improved safety


Compare with Laser, Electron Beam and Sunlight

Compare with other Ion Nitriders


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