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The Cascade e-Ion Plasma Technology

 

Simplified Surface Engineering

Just immerse the part in the Cascade e-Ion plume for a few seconds

Stable Thermal Cascade Plasma Generator. CleanElectricFlame®. Easy use plasma.

Uses for the Cascade e ion

A SmartPlasma Power Device

List of Disruptive Applications Technologies

Create Easy Non-Stick Surfaces for Cooking

Compare Cost/Performance of NoScratch(TM)

Simple Glass Shaping

Communication Glass and Decorative Glass

Biomedical Titanium and Zirconium

Rapid Brazing

Compare.  3DBrazing®

Peening and Smoothing

Information

Improved Tool Performance

Cool to machine - save $$$

Low Wear Surfaces (automolbiles)

Reduce friction, reduce wear

High Nitrogen Content Alloy Carbonitriding or Austempering

Dross Reduction

Save

 

Special techniques for nano-porous surfaces for possible catalyst, solar and antimicrobial use.

4DSintering®

View a PowerPoint Presentation

 

 

 

Use the SmartPlasma device.  Compare  with DLC and other Plasma methods.  Create Carbon Nitrides, Nitrogen Carbon, Borides, Mixed Borides. Hard and Smooth OxyNitride Colors.  High Vickers.  Compound layers in steels form in-situ or by graded layer processing. Use on chromium, molybdenum and managanese steels, titanium alloys, zirconium alloys, diamonds. Oxynitrides are one of the most important new class of materials for use in low wear surfaces, solar cells to glass coatings.  Deburring is enabled by the cascade e-ion beam.  Create Non-stick surfaces for steel and cast iron or treat cell phone glass.  The Cascade e-ion allows for continuous seamless processing for improved tool and die performance. Welcome to the world of two dimensional materials formation of various types.

 

Microstructure, EDAX and XPS results.

 

The Cascade e ion processes allow continuous use.  Traditional furnace based batch treatment techniques could be expensive. Batch processes are often inefficient and expensive due to high furnace and facilities costs. Compare processing time in seconds/minutes with long processing times in furnaces and the associated huge energy consumption.  Other costs from batch coaters include frequent maintenance and repair with specialized labor.  Extra steps like plasma cleaning or blanking parts may be required which are mostly not required with the Cascade e-Ion process.  XPS and other fine electronic probes display the fine structure, depth of ionic penetration and new phase formations which are advantageously used.

The application of titanium, zirconium and iron & steel alloys is limited by low shear strength, high coefficient of friction, low hardness and poor wear resistance.  The cascade e-ion is the first process to offer processing within seconds with no space limitations.  Some of the ROI's are astounding. Some truly useful phases of iron nitrocarbides, carbontrides, smooth oxynitrides, compound phases/layers for hardness and high wear resistance, epsilon phases, and titania or other antimicrobial nanostructures may be experienced. Experience also the possibilities of rapid bulk heat treating and quick brazing with very low operational costs  - often less than a cent per part.   Create conditions for chromium nitrides, titanium nitrides, tantalum, niobium and zirconium oxynitrides, manganese (oxy)nitrides, vanadium nitrides, oxycarbides, aluminides and aluminum/magnesium/silicon nitrides and oxynitrides (including composite combinations or particulate,fiber, functionally graded or grated layers).  Lanthanum, perovskite Oxynitrides for photocatalytic power and photoconductivity. Ion nitride yittria zirconia films. Create functionally graded or grated layers with oxynitrides, oxides, inorganic elements, nitrides and many more.   Change the adherence in organic molecules by plasma polymerization on goggles, pastics, mold surfaces and other parts by direct application. Combust coal and Biomass to less release of aromatics and complete combustionPlease contact MHI.

Case Studies are discussed that range from tool bit reconditioning to easy surface improvement of steels and cast irons.  Bearings, axles, rails, deep-dishes, pans, broaches, drills, carbide drills, cast irons, simple parts like nail clippers and scissors to complex parts that hold up space mirrors and much more can be GoldenBlue treated effortlessly with the cascade e-ion plume. Enjoy the benefit of high temperatures to create smooth and hard surfaces now made easily.

Choice of Plasma Plumes (chose any gas plus choose circular, wide area or slot). Click on: What is Cascade e-ion? for information on color of plume and color of surfaces 

Circular

Wide Area

Spaced Slot

 

circular plume

LIP GLASS PLUME

Oxynitride Coloring

 

Is there a simple way to tell if the Cascade e-Ion Plume treated part is smoother? Yes, when nitrided or oxy-nitrided with the GoldenBlue treatment, the swage-lock, high temperature bolt, ball/roller bearing or machine tool should make less noise when machining, or when putting on the nut.   Less noise is an indicator of smoothness. 

How is wear reduced?  Wear is caused by material loss by tribological processes.  The GoldenBlue® reduces galling, adhesion, abrasion and tribo-oxidation depending on the alloy. See samples in the Auto Industry. Rapid new techniques for Austempering and Martempering.

Figures shows Cascade e-Ion Machines.  Permanently color your hard surface.

Bring your designs to life with beautiful colors and improved engineering surfaces

 

Simplified Surface Engineering Processing: Simply immerse in the Cascade e-Ion Plume

For Cascade e-Ion

- Heat up rate 100K/s (Kelvin per second).  Ionic heat transfer.
- Price per part for several small parts using only air and electric ~ 0.2US¢/part.

Price of Energy: The price of energy depends on the source but is not that different between different forms of energies that one can use (e.g. gas or electric). Comparisons are given for example on Duke Energy. In the US, when comparing gas and electric a rule of thumb is that gas energy is about 75% lower cost when compared with the same quantity of electric energy. However electric machines are generally much more efficient than gas heaters. For example, the OAB or Cascade e-ion can save you even 90% of traditional energy use in relevant applications. These new machines can dramatically influence operational costs. Often using electric heating is less polluting at the use point. Additionally, electric heaters can be efficiently/accurately controlled. Both KWhr and Therm are units of energy.

1kJ (KiloJoule) = 0.9485 BTU=0.0002778 kWhr. One Million BTU (MBTU) = 10.002 Therm (US). Electric energy is normally priced for every KWhr used, while gas is priced by the number of Therms used.

Source: MHI Energy efficiency

MHI Cascade e-IonThe Cascade CleanElectricFlame® technology uses just electricity and air (or other gasses if required, like Nitrogen, Argon or Forming Gas) leaving behind no residues. MHI's Cascade e-Ion Plasma uses less energy, produces hardly any noise and is safer than traditional heating methods. It is one of the most special plumes available. The Cascade e-Ion systems are available for use with hard alloys, plastics, metals, glass forming, ceramics, composites and a number of other materials - even food or wood. The Cascade e-Ion devices can be used for sintering, for example, titanium and carbon mixed powders in minutes. Large surface plates are easily moved under the beam.. The CleanElectricFlame® provides a Cascade e-Ion environment.

The Cascade e-Ion can bend, nitride, creat surface borides like Zirconium diboride and alloys, and for inducing colorful smooth surface oxynitride of many materials including manganese, chromium, titanium, copper/ graphite and glass.

Possible use for automotive axles, pistons, tappets, piston rings, valve stems, guides crank shafts with quick low cost nitriding(O) - even for space re-entry surfacing. The CleanElectricFlame® provides a new type of reducing environment.  Even difficult materials like copper and tungsten-copper alloys have a shiny finish after the Cascade e-Ion plume treatment. In situ growth of nitrides and oxynitrides is a special "open" feature that only the plume from the Cascade e-ion can accomplish. Adopt early. Early stage pricing and possible MHI partner financing available.  MHI offers an attractive MHI-Never-Down program. Please ask for details on the Cascade e-Ion Models, like the unique the MHI-Never-Down program warranty-type features and, if required, MHI Financing. Click on the left navigation bar "solutions" to view several of the case studies. Contact MHI for tool energy savings and astounding ROI possibilities for engine valve steels like EN grades, 21-4N, 52000 and others.

  1. Customize for deposition type and shape. Contact MHI.
  2. Compare price and energy efficiency with ordinary transferred arc or induction plasma deposition or laser.
    No electrodes to change in cascade plasmas.
  3. Improve Surfaces from Tool bits, Non-stick to Electrical.  Titanium Oxynitride-Nitride, Yittria Zirconia (with dopants), Boron Carbide, Silicon Carbide, Molybdenum diSilicide.
  4. Super-ionic bending and Ionic Surface Hardened Glass and Nano Surface Depositions.
  5. WC and other high wear resistant surfaces for tool bits.
  6. Tubes and complex shapes. Thick Alumina on Aluminum.  In situ nitriding of tubes for dies.
  7. Easily make functionally graded coatings.
  8. Custom Turnkey Solutions with Complete Electronic Controls. Increase endurance of stamping and hot working dies, 
  9. Highly stable e-Ion cascade thermal plasma™
  10. New ionic low-cost surface treating and deposition.  Minimize pollution and minimize noise - improve energy efficiency.
  11. Titanium Oxynitride Nitride coatings on HSS and other surfaces.  Easy oxynitride or nitride nitride formers are Ti, V, Zr, Al, Mn, Mo,Fr, Cr and many others.  In addition various eta phases carbon-niitrides and borides are possible.
  12. Non-Stick high hardness metallic surfaces
  13. MHI provides coating for Nickel Aluminide formation with the cascade e ion.   Contact MHI.
  14. Petrochemical: reforming furnaces, cracking furnaces, pyrolysis and fired heaters,

  15. Clean aluminum production.
  16. Clean Coal Combustion and Ignition (reduced aromatics).
  17. VOC cleaning.
  18. Steel and Heat treatment: radiant tubes, furnace rolls

  19. Glass making industry: Roll barrels for float glass line

  20. Color of surfaces. Contact MHI for Edax, Microstructure and XPS results where available.
  21. Aircraft and automobile engine parts
  22. Printing on plastic food containers
  23. Energy-efficient window coatings
  24. Safe drinking water
  25. Voice and data communications components
  26. Waste processing
  27. Coatings and films
  28. Electronic computer chips and integrated circuits
  29. Advanced materials (e.g., ceramics)
  30. High-efficiency lighting
  31. Plasma enhanced chemistry
  32. Surface cleaning
  33. Processing of plastics
  34. Gas treatment
  35. Spraying of materials
  36. Chemical analysis
  37. Semiconductor production for computers
  38. TVs and electronics
  39. Sterilization of medical tools

 

From surface crystal growth technology to surface nitriding, the Cascade e-Ion places the technical process and value-addition possibilities squarely in the hands of innovators of tool-bits, steel parts, cast iron and steel manufacturers-both primary and secondary non-stick-surface manufacturers, solar cell materials and shapes, hydrogen storage and wafer manufacturers - thus giving everyone new market opportunities.  The Cascade e-Ion makes it extremely feasible to provide dross reducing covers for melting metals. The DRO models are particularly well designed for this type of solution. The cascade e-ion can make magnets better for corrosion resistance or high temperature oxidation.  How do you know that the surface is harder?  Bounce the ball bearing and watch if it bounces higher than the non-coated bearing.

MHI Anti-Seize Treatment (Bearings, Bolts, Bushings)

Learn More About Cascade e-Ion Plasma Technology

Cascade e ion booms

What is Cascade e-Ion Plasma | Extremely Wide Area Plasma (with LIP) | Extremely Rapid Depositor De-e-Ion Models with arrangements possible for trials on surface reconditioning with purchased units.

  1. Save energy: use ~15kW not ~150kW.  In dollars? Please click here.
  2. Use air as input gas almost for all applications because of the heavy nitrogen ions in plume.
  3. Easy port for steam and any other gases.
  4. If using other gas then OK to switch to air when not in use.
  5. Use time is short.  Grow unusual smooth surfaces within seconds.
  6. Enjoy flexibility of operation (just immerse or impinge plume on part).
  7. Good control over the depth of "white layer" so that finish lapping is not required
  8. Particularly suitable for large or small batch production.
  9. Large or heavy components which normally are not be treated by conventional plasma (because of a lack of process control) can now be economically nitrided/oxynitrided.
  10. Deburr.
  11. Enjoy MHI-Never-Down Program (enrollment is free up 2016 December).
  12. Quick installation and use.
  13. Best of MHI Sales and Service.
  14. 3DBrazing and 4DSintering®are a registered trademarks of MHI.

Contact Us for a Demonstration

We may not yet have all the answers on every application, so we may not be sure if the Cascade e-Ion Plasma is always right for you. However, for most surfaces the CleanElectricFlame provides the best of plasma, ion-implantation and modified chemical species, enough to warrant a trial (payment may be required) on your part. Regardless of whether we know what the treatment offers for a very specific untested surface, we can certainly arrange to have your part treated during a live video conference. Contact MHI. It is worth a try!

Improved Energy Efficiency From:

 

a)  When the part or tool lasts longer or can be used at  higher speeds.

b)  The tool requires lesser number of replacements.

c)  When dry machining is possible. Dry machining has great potential for improved energy and resource efficiency.

d)  The process for manufacturing of the tool uses the lowest energy procedure so that the total energy cycle is minimum. (e.g.as with the Cascade e-Ion).

 

Please compare GoldenBlue® treated with other tools/drills and bits.

Richard Feynman* implied that real discovery was somewhat like finding a new type of flame

 

Is MHI's cascade e-ion a new type of flame - made from just air/electric?

 

Stable Thermal Cascade Plasma Generator.
CleanElectricFlame®

About the Cascade e-Ion Technology

The Cascade e-Ion technology is presented in the form of an easy to use, easy to teach yourself plasma machine.  The break through process produces high watt atmospheric plasma capable of rapidly cleaning, deburring, depositing, growing, hardening, joining, reacting of gaseous to metallic materials and many more applications like rapid brazing, the most rapid heat treatment and ultra low cost of total energy used.

 

When used for surface treating XPS and other fine electronic probes display the fine (nano or surface quantum dot) structure, depth of ionic penetration and many undiscovered new phase formations which may be used advantageously for applications.

 

Customer Testimonial.  "I had a look at your table comparing the cost and various features of  (standard RF) plasma nitriding and MHI (Cascade) e-ion plasma nitriding machines and the advantages of the later are remarkable. This type of comparison ......... an alluring proposition for any stakeholder to purchase such an equipment".

Cascade e-Ion Plasma technology uses electricity and just air (or any other gas) to produce a CleanElectricFlame® plume that contains ions, electrons, radiation and hot gas. It is a versatile tool for several possible applications. To the best of our knowledge this is the only plasma generator that offers close to 100% power transfer - thus making it a unique high-efficiency directed energy source.  Applications could include the formation of a single layer of atoms (or stacks), with far-reaching potential.  Known as two-dimensional materials, this class has grown within the past few years to include lattice-like layers of carbon (graphene), boron (borophene), hexagonal boron nitride (white graphene), silicon (silicene), phosphorous (phosphorene) and 2d oxycarbonitrides or special carbon nitrogen compounds. Check our Cascade e-Ion applications page

On account of the number of ions quickly available to a part (please see pdf below) the Cascade e-Ion plasma finds uses in machine-tool development of new and reconditioning machine tools, non-stick surfaces, clean glass bending, covers for liquid metals, plastics (polymerization and functionalization), metals (heat treatment of semiconductors, metal finishing, nano-deposition and brazing and related operations). The machines also find use in ceramics (ceramic surface modification, nano-treatment and other modern materials from new process type use).   Please see pdf below or click through to our Cascade e-Ion applications page for typical solutions. Shown below are the first ionization energy of gases as a function of the atomic number.

*http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xex64q

Plasma Review


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:First_Ionization_Energy.svg

 

Case studies for applications are shown below. Please also click to applications

 

How do the Cascade Ions interact with a surface

 

    example of ionization and recombination

The Cascade e-ion can be used for almost any gas (element or molecule). Air, N2, Forming Gas, Xenon, Argon are some of the common gases that are used with the Cascade e-Ion Machines. How much heat is available depends on many factors. Air, containing 79%N2, 20% O2 and rest the common ingredients can be plazmized. Ionization of molecules often leads to changes in molecular geometry. Only details about the first ionization energy of a non- vibratory molecule are shown below.   An air CleanElectricFlame is shown on the picture on the left, in the picture above. The ionization energy is slightly different between atoms and molecules of the same element. The issue of ionization is complex for molecules which posses vibration and rotational energies.   Ionization energy reports for molecules may involve some approximations.  Ionization energy is reported in eV (eV/atom) or kJ/mol. The first ionization energy for hydrogen is 13.894eV (1312.0 kJ/mol). The first ionization energy is 12.5eV and 13.61eV for an oxygen molecule and oxygen atom respectively (for KJ/mole please read below). The first ionization energy is 15.6eV and 14.45eV for a nitrogen atom and nitrogen molecule respectively. The First Ionization Energy as a function of the atomic number is shown above. The First Ionization Energy of an element (atom) is the energy needed to remove the outermost electron from a neutral atom in the gas phase. When recombination with an electron occurs for the ionized atom, tremendous heat is generated. Thus rapid heating of a surface/substrate is the result. The e-Ion is able to transfer the ionic species and cause recombination to occur where the heat and electric field is required. The thermal cascade plasma is a remarkable scientific achievement. A graphic of the heating potential is shown in the illustration below for activated ionization. The last two reactions are the recombination reactions that produce intense localized energy release, often in the form of heat. The e-Ion Cascade Thermal Plasma® is a unique patented device that can produce a CleanElectricFlame. Although Nitrogen is used for the example almost all gases can be used. When ionized the chemical behavior of the atom is influenced. The electronic structure is shown below:

N: 1s2 2s2 2p3 and O: 1s22s2 2p4

N+: 1s2 2s2 2p2 and O+: 1s22s2 2p3

In general, the first ionization energy increases as we go from left to right across a row of the periodic table. The first ionization energy decreases as we go down a column of the periodic table. Note from the ionization vs. atomic number chart above that within a periodic table row that contains N2 and O2 there is small a change in the ionization trend. In the ionization chart above, note that there is a small drop in energy deposited to surface with oxygen ions compared to nitrogen ions. Hund's rule predicts that the three electrons in the 2p orbitals of a nitrogen atom all have the same spin, but electrons are paired in one of the 2p orbitals on an oxygen atom (thus creating an opposite spin pair) and thus explaining the ionization energy difference between N2 and O2. Please contact MHI for references to thermal calculations or directly view published article for heat transfer for plasma. This particular linked article explains how even a slight amount of e-ion plasmazation is capable of vast heat transfer rate improvements when compared to heating by other methods like convection or radiation alone. Molecular Ionization:  The first ionization energy of H2 are different than the atom  It could be more or less depending on the bond strength (energy).  The measured ionization energy of H2 is 1488 kJ mol​-1.  Note that comparison to the ionization energy of a hydrogen atom, is 1312 kJ mol​-1. More energy is required energy to remove an electron for the hydrogen molecule ionization, when compared to the hydrogen atom.  The Gibbs free energy of an ionic reaction could thus be different in final reaction results depending on species.   In general molecular ionization is a much more complex process than atomic ionization because of the availability of many states.

Ask MHI for steam-ion, and other gas mixtures using the automated MHI SIMGAS.  Plasma Functionalization.

 

The surfaces that are produced because of the reaction of the cascade e-ion with them depends on the gas used. Many of the examples discussed in the case studies section are with ionized air.  Surface colors are influenced by many properties including the composition of nitrides and oxynitrides and wavelengths used.  The refractive index and extinction coefficient are often very sensitive to processing conditions.  Some discussion on solar cell use is given here.

Some plastic surface molecules may be reoriented (or functionalized) with a plasma and sometimes made into antimicrobial surfaces for resisting some type of bacterial colonization’s or biofilm growth? Please Contact MHI for ongoing detailed early investigation with an EPA CRADA alliance. Review some recent results using the De-e-Ion nanodeposition possibilities for such applications for biofilm elimination on metals even after 7 years of use in biofilm forming environments.

Figures that explain ionization (partial credit Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermionic_condensate#/media/File:Phase_change_-_en.svg)

 

 

                               Enthalpy vs state of matter                                                    Cascade eIon Possibilities Plasma Models

What can the Cascade e-Ion Plasma CleanElectricFlame do for your industry?

Cascade e-Ion Plasma Case Studies Solutions.  The GoldenBlue™  Surface and Process Engineering.

Available Cascade e-Ion Plasma™ Models

Multi-gas inputs are standard for e-ion and S-e-Ion models  Find out more for inert and hydrogen gas, carbon containing gases and steam?

DRO models are for melt dross reduction. G models are for glass shaping.

MHI offers the only

Plasma-vittori™ tubes to deflect/spray the plasma beam.  Find out more?

Contactl MHI for which specific part number can be used for a given application.

Model

kW

Cascade e-Ion-10

10

Cascade e-Ion-14

14

 

Cascade S-e-Ion-10

10

Cascade S-e-Ion-14

14

 

De-e-Ion-14

14-15

 

DRO-e-Ion-10

10-15

DRO-e-Ion-14

15-16

For auto parts hardness and smoothness experience from tappets to pins and other uses

EIZ-C*

10-15

For Glass bending and glass smoothness experience

G-S-e-10

10

G-S-e-14

15

*EIZ is with custom attachment of materials handing systems for applications. Do 1000 parts per hour and save energy and cost.

E Ion machines and typical materials transfer belt rotor or boom

E Ion machines and typical materials transfer belt rotor or boom E Ion machines and typical materials transfer belt rotor or boom E Ion machines and typical materials transfer belt rotor or boom

Materials handling Stages. Generally in user scope. This is typically discussed with user after the user has gained direct experience with the CleanElectricPlume®

Cascade e-Ion Plasma™ Apertures

Diffusion-square

Multi-exit (LIP)

Narrow-focused
(Default)

Wide-slit with EIZ-C

G Model use Multi Plume

Single Plasma Plume Intense

Wide e-Ion Flow

Diffusion e-Ion Flow

Focused e-Ion Flow

Narrow e-Ion Flow

(Please request quotation from MHI). 

New* R&D ModelDiscounted almost 50% for academic institutions who are at least one year old existing MHI customers.

There are specific accessories offered for specific technologies.

 

  Cascade e-ion EIZ layoutCascade e-ion layout 

MHI's unique Cascade e-Ion Plasma™ features novel technology that allows it to replace existing processes while simultaneously improving efficiency and productivity. Immerse in CleanElectricFlame® for non line-of-sight processing or BendHeat™ requirements.  The unique plume allows direct rapid processing of surfaces and maintain cleanliness even for air processing.

Cascade e-Ion Plasma™ and Machine Use

(Patented products and treatments, available only from MHI)

Hard Coat or refurbish tool bits, drill bits, machine tools. Save energy, double drilling speed, more life and improve ease of tapping.

.

Nitride biomedical parts, hardface, oxynitride, add silicides. Finish processing in seconds. Use gas of choice including only air for nitriding

.

Brazing Aluminum to Steel to Magnesium, Aluminum to Magnesium, Plus other combinations of brazing ferrous to nonferrous metals.  3DBrazing® and 4DSintering® are a registered trademarks of MHI.

Rapid Deburring and Smoothing from Metals to Plastics.  Smooth Finishing.  Ionic Deburring and e-Ion Peening if Biomedical Parts.  Titanium Nitriding.  Carbon Nitriding.  NitroCarburizing.  Please call MHI.

Clean bending or shaping of electronic glass

Hard non-stick within seconds.  Rapid processing.  Simple.

Nickel or Cobalt Alloy Brazing and Hardfacing Nickel or Cobalt Alloys.  Request FREE White Paper Rapid tool-bit manufacture of WC-Co with embedded ceramic particles

High-intensity die heating similar exceeding performance by Induction, SW-IR or Laser. Please contact with request for free-report for heating rate and non-line of sight uniform heating.

Plastic Surface Functional Manipulation (please download ideation brochure).Plasma Ideation Brochure.

Surface treatment without grounding object. Possibilities from water to paper and pulp industry.  Possibly use for activating carbon or other surfaces by the ion charge and temperature in the CleanEletricFlame.

Active Metal Brazing & Ceramic Brazing

Surface sintering and sealing

Plastic welding or layering or quick layer adhesive bond formation.  Biomedical coatings with De-e-Ion.  Simple, safe, easy.  Easy ability to create bio-inspired surfaces

Create Hydrophilic or Hydrophobic surfaces.

 

 

super hydro phobic?MHI Cascade e-Ion Plume

Smoothing and conditioning. Connect to air/gas source and electric. Small foot-print. Use for metallic deburring specially for biomedical parts for example made from Titanium.  Cleaning extruded plastics.  Avoid toxic chemicals.  Unique power adjustments possible. High value parts such as transportation  (Land based, water based or air and space based).  Ecological solutions, for health reliability monitoring of parts for inspection" Plasma Ideation BrochureScratch test yields COF ~0.1 on coated stainless 304.

Cofficient of FrictionG Model use

Dross Reduction in Metallic Liquid Melting and Holding Furnaces. 

The Cascade e-Ion is used to melt or cover melts without the need for the chemicals that are used currently to prevent metal loss from slag formation.  Two pictures shown below - a conventional heater/burner was replaced with the Cascade e-Ion melt from air plasma.  Note the significant reduction in slag and better quality of the overall melt (now shiny). (Download Plasma Applications for Aluminum Supplement). The use of the Cascade e-Ion leads to substantial savings in metal recovery accompanied with reductions in the use and disposal of harsh chemicals.  Use for aluminum, silver liquation and other dross as the special reducing ionic beam comes into play. Large savings and very high ROI for air cascade e-ion cover for aluminum, zinc bismuth, silver, gold, lead and other metals for refining, beneficiating or separation as applicable.

  Great recovery  Plasma & Aluminum Melting

Dross reduction without chemicals

 

Use De-e-Ion™ for cleaning and simultaneous application of nano surfaces, dyes and other defect markers.

 

Diamond surface coating and Nano-silica powder

 

 

 

 

Nitrides, Yittria Zirconia, Boron Carbide, Silicon Carbide, Molybdenum diSilicide.

Titanium Nitride (from air through the cascade e-ion)

Glass and Nano Surface Depositions.

WC and other high wear resistant surfaces for tool bits.

Tubes and complex shapes. 

 

 

 

Thin Film Deposition.  Molybdenum DiSilicide by ionic deposition and deposition of other nitrides and carbides.  Quick ion-assisted deposition. Thermal barrier coatings including functionally graded coatings with both ceramics and metals. Easy use with precursors.

Improve surface adhesion and wettability.  Deposit carbides, nitrides, borides, phosphides sulfides and more in a graded fashion for various functional uses.

3DBrazing® (Multi-dimensional Brazing)

4DSintering® (Multi-dimensional Sintering at rapid cascade-ionic speeds)

Industry Specific Use

Ion/Plasma Nitriding, Rapid Diffusion Brazing, Tool-bit repair, Glass bending, Diffusion, brazing, Output Shaft Hardening, Horizontal Drive Bar Hardening, Shock Absorber Stem Hardening, Axle Shaft Hardening, Constant Velocity Joint Hardening, Hardening of power take-off, Shaft Hardening, Bolt Head Hardening, Heating of titanium and/or stainless steel wires , Hard Metal Tool Brazing, Resistance Brazing, Gauge Brazing, On-line tempering of mechanical parts, Shrink Fitting, Hardening and tempering of chains, Agricultural Tool Sectional Hardening, Drive Shaft Hardening, Stub Shaft Hardening, Power Transmission Shaft Hardening, High Wear Application Hardening, Automotive Axle Shaft Hardening, Internal & External Tube Brazing, Honeycomb brazing, Oil & Gas Wear Resistance Surface Treating, Rapid Tool Bit Manufacturing (WC-Cobalt), Manufacturing Shiny Parts without Reducing Gas. Copper Brazing, Low to mid-carbon steel heat-treatment (4140 grade), Bio Implants of Plastics, Cobalt alloys or Titanium alloys for various types of surface enhancements from antimicrobial to best fusion with base metal, Decontamination, Textile Processing, Non-line of Sight Heat Processing, Fluorocarbon deposition, Fluoropolymer deposition, Silicon Deposition, Rapid Epoxy Deposition and Curing, Glass Substrate Deposition, Electronic Polymer Applications, MEMS, Carbon Nanotube or Fiber Production, Compare to electron or laser beam Melting RTP processing, annealing of semiconductors like Si, SiC, Diamond and GaN.  Ionic synthesis methods or ion-assisted methods for improving luminescent properties of nitrides, silicates and phosphors. Electronic Materials Fabrication.   Most Nitrides and Oxynitrides display very low wear rates.  The rate for chalk in comparison, one that has low wear resistance, is in the order of 10**-2mm3/Nm, and that of diamonds is between 10**-9 and 10**-10 mm3/Nm.

The Cascade e-Ion applications include those in extractive metallurgy, mining and ore separation, with uses that enable better collection, beneficiation, refinement of precious metals, and metal/metal oxide reduction and or separation.  The energy savings techniques that allow possibilities of change from 200kW machines to 15 kW cascade e-ion machines, embrace particle sintering to controlled oxidative separation.  The potential uses for the  cascade e-Ion are for augmenting chemical-free misch-metal and precious metal production.  Please contact MHI for more details.

The Cascade e-ion offers a good return on investment (ROI) for several applications such as melt covers, dielectric rapid processing, nitriding and a host of other applications.

e-Ion Plasma™ Request Information

Comparisons

Comparisons with directed energy systems (Laser, Electron Beam to Sunlight). Note that the CleanElectricFlame® can be used as a narrow or wide area source; thus is compared below to Laser to Sunlight.    The price comparison with batch ionic surface engineering machines is given below.

(All information in general comparison tables like the ones shown below should only to be treated as approximate or indicative of order of magnitude)

 

Cascade e-Ion Plasma™

Laser

Electron Beam

Microwave

Induction

Sunlight

Surface Impact

Beam up to small to even 150mm, large impact, improves productivity.  Large area allows for CleanElectricFlame® soaking at various power settings.

Commonly available average beam size is less than 2mm

Commonly less than 0.5mm beam

Poor

Depth varies with frequency of machine.

Varies

Welding/Joining

Yes, even for dissimilar materials

Yes, limited by beam parameters

Yes, limited by beam parameters

Very rare possibilities

No for non-metals or poor electrical conductors like ceramics or plastics

 

Yes when metallic. Coils need to couple and sometimes be formed into complex shapes.

N/A

Drilling

N/A

Yes

Yes

No

Vacuum Always Required?

No. Plasmize Air to cut down on cost of input gas.

No

Yes

No

Cannot be used with metal.

Power Density

106-109 W/m2

106-108 W/m2 for commonly used industrial CO2 continuous lasers. Depends on laser type.

~106 W/m2 Depends on acceleration voltage and wavelength of beam

Commonly about 1 to 2 kW for entire chamber.�Power density is low for surface. Bulk volume dominates as major term for power density.

Efficiency depends on Coil spacing, frequency and type of materials keep in coil.

1.3x103 W/m2 (average)

Water Requirement

None.  High Energy Efficiency.

High

High

No

Extremely high

N/A

Energy Efficiency

Very high

Very low

Very low

Variable

Very Low

N/A

Surface Deposition Comparisons

 

Cascade de-e-Ion Plasma™

Laser

Electron Beam

Deposit Rate

Very high, continuous, flexible for even Colloids and gels.

Medium

Medium, discontinuous

Species Deposited

Atoms and Ions. 

Atoms and Ions

Mostly Atoms

Complex Shaped Objects

Good/Excellent, varying uniformity

Good

Poor, based on line of sight

Alloy Depositing

Yes

Yes

Yes

Simultaneous Gas Heating

Yes

No

No

Substrate Heating

Yes

Low

Yes

Operational Costs and Capital Cost Small High High

Air 0.1
Nitrogen 1
Hydrogen 4
Argon 6
Helium 21
Vacuum
High kW

The smart Cascade e-Ion machine can be used with air as the gas input.
Compare cost of Gases. Please contact MHI for Ionic impact XPS.

Comparison Price with Conventional Batch Type Ion Nitriding Machine

Type

Conventional

RF Type

Small Volume

Conventional

RF Type

Mid-Volume

Cascade e-Ion System

Working volume, m3

Price*

(*we encourage user to compare prices by themselves as discounts, exchange rate and other issues may impact the price).  Only estimates are shown.

0.1m3 (~3.5 cu.ft).

Price about $100,000 U.S.

10m3 (~350 cu.ft) Prices start at $500,000 USA

Unlimited Volume

Please be surprised at the operations cost and capital cost.  Request Quote and Discounts

http://www.mhi-inc.com/PG4/eion-plasma-device-family.html#side-tab4

Working surface diameter x h estimate

500 mm by 610 mm

1100 mm by 5100 mm

Unlimited because it is disconnected from machine features.

Input voltage

3/380V(480V ) +10%/-15%, 50Hz ( 60 Hz )

Single phase or three phase.50/60Hz

Data Acquisition and Control Included.

Within Allowed Single Phase in Most Countries

Maximum operational output power, kW

~20 / 25 kW

~200 kW

200kW operational price is about US$32000 per 200 days/ year @10¢/KWhr and 8 hrs of use per day

~15 kW

15kW operational price is about US$2400 per 200 days/ year @10¢/KWhr and 8 hrs of use per day

Working gases

Nitrogen, hydrogen, ammonia, propane, natural gas, methane, argon

 

Includes Air and Steam Nitrogen, Argon

Forming (i.e. Nitrogen/Hydrogen)

Nitrogen, hydrogen, propane, natural gas, methane, argon

Patented

Typical Operation Pressure

1 - 8 milli bar

No Vacuum Requirement.

1 atmosphere

Selection Guide and Comparison

Colors on surface. Cascade e-Ion can be Air Plasma.  Please contact MHI.

(All information in general comparison tables like the ones shown below should only to be treated as approximate or indicative of order of magnitude)

 

Type of Machine

Surface Improvement Type

Thickness

Best Outcome

Property Enhancement

Industry

Cascade e-Ion

SE Models

 

New* R&D ModelDiscounted almost 50% for academic institutions who are existing MHI customers.

In-situ growth.

High integrity with base alloy.

 

Cascade e-Ion process generally produce smoother surfaces when compared to gas process.

 

In-situ color your hard surface

 

Nano-10 microns

Depends on material, mechanism and process conditions.   Also depends on solid solution and other possibilities.

 

1000nm=1 micron

 

 

 

 

Oxynitrides,
Nitrides e.g. TiN and TiON.
Enhanced SiC and Ti(C,N,O)
Si3N4 and variations. Epsilon and Gamma types.

Galling and Wear
Extreme Resistance
Non Stick
Corrosion Resistant
Bearings and Anti Seize
Anti friction
Biomedical
Cell Phones
Low friction coefficient

Machine Tools. Auto Parts including suspension and engine
Cast Iron
Die Steel
Stainless Steel
Graphite
Glass

De-e-Ion
SE and NE Models

Deposition and Surface layering including thick oxide formation

Nano-Microns- mm depends on objective. Cascade e-Ion assisted rapid deposition.

Alumina, Ni-Cr-Mo,
Molysilicides
Carbides
Diamond Coatings
Composites

Anti-microbial.
Dense and Hard Overlay
Friction.
Prevent Biofilms.

Metals
Polymers
Ceramics
Power Industry
Paper & Pulp

LIP

Functionalization of polymers

Molecular Size

Polymeric and composites

Wetting and Antimicrobial

Soft Matter Industries

DRO Cascade

Not a coating

Use for oxide control

Lower dross and waste

Clean metal

Aluminum melts primary and secondary. Other liquid metals like silver, bismuth, zinc etc.

Cascade EIZ-C

Deburr, ionic clean.

Surface burrs may be removed

-

Clean and/or de-burr

Lower RMS or removal of debris

Metals and Ceramics

Cascade e-Ion with Slit Aperture

Bend Glass

Nano

SiAlON or AlON

Smooth bend, water repellent

Cell phone, tablets, optical data transfer

 

PVD

1 - 5 μm (40 - 200 μin)

Ti (C,N)

Wear resistance

Machine tools

 

CVD

1 - 50 μm (40 - 2000 μin)

Sic

Wear resistance

Fiber coatings

 

Baked polymers

1 - 10 μm (40 - 400 μin)

Polymers

Corrosion resistance, aesthetics

Automobile

 

Thermal spray

0.04 - 3 mm (0.0015 - 0.12 in)

Ceramics and metallic alloys

Wear resistance, corrosion resistance

Bearings

 

Hard chromium plate

10 - 100 μm (400 - 4000 μin)

Chrome

Wear resistance

Rolls

 

Weld overlay

0.5 - 5 mm (0.02 - 0.2 in)

Steel, stellite

Wear resistance

Valves

 

Galvanize

1 - 5 μm (40 - 200 μin)

Zinc

Corrosion resistance

Steel sheet

 

Braze overlay

10 - 100 μm (400 - 4000 μin)

Interface Integrety

Wear

Paper and Pulp

CleanElectricFlame® Technology

Compare High Power CleanElectricFlame® use to Flame/Combustion

CleanElectricFlame™. Nitrogen e-Ion Plasma™ Plume (possible species include N2, N2+, N+, N, e-). Discharge is into room air conditions. The heating system can be used for composite curing or heat treating on large surface areas of several square meters.

e-Ion Plasma CleanElectricFlame LIP GLASS PLUME

Compare

Combustion Flame
(Conventional Plume)

MHI Advanced LIP System GEN 3
(CleanElectricFlame® Plume)

Emissions, Health & Environment

  • Likely to produce CO2, SO2 and soot
  • Uses combustion gas inputs of fuel and air, commonly requiring plumbing
  • Typical 20,000 BTU/hr (5.858kW) burners produce about 22 moles of greenhouse gasses per hour
  • Fossil fuel powered combustion often  leads to toxic by products such as Carbon Monoxide
  • Surfaces impacted by flame may be contaminated with small size soot-like particles.

Pounds of Carbon Dioxide per One Million BTU of burn

 

Diesel fuel /heating oil

161.3

Gasoline

157.2

Propane

139.0

Natural gas

117.0

E-Ion, HGA or OAB at device  0.0

 

  • CleanElectricFlame™ technology produces no CO2, SO2 or soot as a byproduct
  • No toxic emissions.  Air is typical input.
  • Electricity powered, no plumbing or piping needed
  • No venting required
  • Uses only air input, no other gasses<
  • No greenhouse gasses
  • Air to Air. It's like changing your combustion flame to an electric flame
  • Highly efficient, saving on energy costs
  • Non-toxic
  • No residues left because of process
  • Improves productivity
  • May improve shelf life and quality of products

Process Impact

  • Narrow area impact when requiring intense flame, non-uniform heat application
  • Uniformity requirements may require multiple burners
  • User configurable width of plume
  • Higher efficiency
  • Requires less monitoring, saving on labor costs

Explosion Hazards

  • Highly combustible, volatile
  • Incomplete combustion may be a down-stream fire hazard
  • No combustible gasses used as inputs
  • LIP systems offer integrated over-temperature controls

Energy Efficiency

  • Flames are energy inefficient, with only around 10% of their energy able to be utilized for heat as quantized radiation may dissipate heat
  • Over 90% energy efficient
  • Realized energy savings may approach 80%. (A 30kW combustible flame may be replaced by a 6kW plasma plume)

Control

  • Lack of precise control
  • Frequent quality control issues
  • Precise
  • Available built-in safety controls including an over-temperature shut-off

Noise

    • Noisy combustion process
  • Silent

Odor

  • Noxious odor is often noted from combustion byproducts
  • Odorless
  • Clean Process

Cost of Operations

  • Consumes expensive reactant gasses
  • Frequent downtime leads to lost revenues and costs of repair
  • Higher insurance and other costs because of emissions and other flame hazards
  • Uses air and electricity
  • No reliance on supply of combustibles
  • Less downtime, less lost revenues, less cost of repairs
  • Possibility of lower insurance premiums from improved safety

 

Compare with Laser, Electron Beam and Sunlight

Compare with other Ion Nitriders

e-Ion Plasma™ Request Information

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MHI Cascade e-Ion Plasma