Did You Know? Trivia and more about heating, thermal materials, clean manufacturing, industrial decarbonization and unusual fun science observations

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7/21/2024

Did you know

  • Bhutan is the world’s first carbon-negative country; its vast forests absorb more carbon dioxide (CO2) than it emits from all activities.
  • In most countries, human-caused (anthropogenic) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions come from burning fossil fuels—coal, natural gas, and petroleum—for energy use.   Data shows that some 64 countries cut their fossil CO2 emissions during 2016-2019, but the reduction rate needs to increase tenfold to meet the Paris Agreement’s aims to tackle climate change.
  • The impacts of anthropogenic CO2 emissions are so overwhelming they change our time measurement.  The melting of polar ice caused by global warming is changing the speed of Earth’s rotation and increasing the length of each day.
  • The report from the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change introduced a new deadline that the world must meet to avoid the most catastrophic climate impacts.  Limiting the excess global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius (above primary industrialization levels) implies a 67 percent emissions cut by 2035 from a 2005 baseline (Source)
  • The transition from fossil fuel heating to electrical equipment is not just a necessary step; it’s an urgent one.  We must make this shift well before the end of the useful life of fossil fuel equipment.  It’s a call to action for a sustainable future, and the time to act is now.
  • The fastest way to deep-decarbonize and improve energy efficiency and productivity is by reducing friction and electrifying industrial heating with the   Compact Airtorch, Thermal RadiatorsMightySteam® and the Cascade E-IONCleanElectricFlame®.
  • The electrification of industrial heating equipment offers one of the lowest costs per KW, making it one of the quickest impact strategies to lower global emissions.

7/11/2024

Did you know:

7/6/2024

6/30/2024

Did you know?

  • The climate issue has become a crisis.  To change the trajectory we can all make it a project both big and small.  One can make these into a fun project with real savings
  • Small at-home projects
    Change the heating or cooling comfort in the house by 0.5C.  Your utility bill should be able to record a benefit, and you will know you are helping globally.
  • Some community projects
    Work for optimizing traffic lights so that your commute has less idling.
  • Some industrial projects
    Change the heating from fossil fuel to electric.
    Did you know a 41MW industrial drier could be replaced with a 6 MW electric drier?  This saves about 6.5 tons per hour of CO2 emissions!

https://mhi-inc.com/decarbonization-project-costing-analysis-energy-efficiency/

6/23/2024

Did you know?

6/15/2024

Did you know?

6/9/2024

Did you know?

  • Rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere could promote the growth of tropical forests by making photosynthesis easier. However, scientists have worried that the scarcity of certain nutrients — particularly phosphorus — would limit forest growth, shrinking the potential carbon sink. Soils in the tropics are typically low in phosphorus due to weathering.   Increasing tropospheric CO2 levels are expected to make soil nutrients even more scarce.
    • There is some good news. It appears that trees and forests actively respond to their nutrient environment.   A recent report suggests that forests have flexible strategies that help them overcome the challenge of scarce nutrients. 
  • However, new, unexpected problems may also be related to climate change. Even the ozone layer is expected to be impacted by climate change. Clouds can change character rapidly with warming.
  • Humans can take rapid corrective action to eliminate fossil fuel use. This is most effectively done quickly by electrifying industrial heating methods. 
  • The fastest way to deep-decarbonize and improve energy efficiency and productivity is by reducing friction and electrifying industrial heating with the Electric Airtorch® Compact Thermal RadiatorsMightySteam® and the Cascade E-ION,   CleanElectricFlame®.
  • The electrification of industrial heating equipment offers one of the lowest costs per KW, making it one of the quickest impact strategies to lower global emissions.

6/2/2024

Did you know?

  • Rapidly rising moist air masses are the source of intense weather. When such air masses rotate, they form tornados, cyclones, typhoons, and hurricanes.
  • Tornadoes form over land when strong vertical wind shear and horizontal temperature changes are present.
  • Hurricanes, Cyclones, and Typhoons are similar. They form over the oceans when the oceans are warm.
  • Rotating storms are Hurricanes when they develop over the North Atlantic, Central North Pacific, or Eastern North Pacific; Cyclones when they form over the South Pacific and Indian Ocean and; Typhoons when they develop in the Northwest Pacific. They can sometimes trigger tornadoes when they make landfall.
  • Since the Coriolis force is the strongest at the poles and weakest at the equator, hurricanes tend not to form within 5 degrees latitude of the equator. Storms that form north of the equator spin counterclockwise, while storms south of the equator spin clockwise.
  • Most of Europe rarely experiences hurricanes due to its location away from warm waters and high humidity. The northern part of the US West Coast rarely see hurricanes. South America doesn’t often have hurricanes due to the colder temperatures of the waters or the opposite wind conditions needed to produce such storms.
  • Even though winds from the strongest tornadoes far exceed that of the strongest hurricanes, hurricanes typically cause much more damage individually, over a season, and over far more significant areas.
  • Global warming is increasing the intensity and possibly even the number of tornadoes, hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones.
  • The fastest way to deep-decarbonize and improve energy efficiency and productivity is by reducing friction and electrifying industrial heating with the Electric Airtorch® Compact Thermal RadiatorsMightySteam® and the Cascade E-IONCleanElectricFlame®.
  • The electrification of industrial heating equipment offers one of the lowest costs per KW, making it one of the quickest impact strategies to lower global emissions

5/26/2024

Life and Science are full of interesting paradoxes!

  1. An example of a paradox is an almost blank page with a sentence that reads,” This page has been intentionally left blank.”
  2. This self-referential paradox consists of the statement, “This sentence is false.” If the statement is true, then it is false.
  3. What is Russell’s paradox set of all sets? The question here is whether a set of all sets contains itself.
  4. In the realm of Science, a paradox is like a riddle that nature throws at us. It’s a situation or a statement that seems to defy logic, leading to different and contradictory results. It’s a puzzle that challenges our understanding of nature.
  5. February 2024 was the warmest February ever recorded globally. However, parts of North America, Asia, and Europe experienced record-breaking cold temperatures. In some places, the temperatures dipped to life-threatening lowest levels in China and Russia. Although this paradox is now somewhat explained by understanding the competitive behavior of winds and clouds, this juxtaposition of increasing temperatures amidst extreme coldness pushes the future of our planet’s climate into uncertainty.   We must stop making excess CO2 – stop burning fossil fuels.
  6. The fastest way to deep-decarbonize and improve energy efficiency and productivity is by reducing friction and electrifying industrial heating with the Electric Airtorch®. Compact Thermal Radiators,  MightySteam® and the  Cascade E-IONCleanElectricFlame®.
  7. The electrification of industrial heating equipment offers one of the lowest costs per KW, making it one of the quickest impact strategies to lower global emissions.

5/19/2024

Did you know

  • Neutrinos are created in the core of stars. They are called  the Ghost Particles of Nature,
  • Neutrinos are small and light. They are the lightest of all the subatomic particles that have mass, yet they travel close to the speed of light. They cannot be easily stopped or blocked. However, some scientists believe neutrinos turn antimatter into matter.
  • The sun, our closest star, is a prolific producer of neutrinos. It emits a large number of these elusive particles every second.
  • Even amongst the elusive ubiquitous neutrino, four types of neutrinos are thought to exist.
  • Neutrinos can pass through almost anything, and they do so constantly. About 400 billion neutrinos from the sun alone pass through each person on Earth each second.
  • Neutrinos are the most abundant particle with mass in the universe, with around 300 neutrinos in every cubic centimeter.
  • Scientists are exploring the possible role of neutrinos in dark matter. Engineers are exploring neutrino-based communications possibilities.
  • The fastest way to deep-decarbonize and improve energy efficiency and productivity is by reducing friction and electrifying industrial heating with the Electric Airtorch®. Compact Thermal RadiatorsMightySteam® and the  Cascade E-ION, CleanElectricFlame®.
  • The electrification of industrial heating equipment offers one of the lowest costs per KW, making it one of the quickest impact strategies to lower global emissions.

5/10/2024

Did you know:

  • Our Earth just recorded its hottest 12-month streak (November 2022-October 2023).  About 90 % of people on the globe have experienced at least ten days of high temperatures influenced by climate change.  Source
  • Temperatures during 2023 likely exceeded those of any period in at least the last 100,000 years.  Not only is 2023 the warmest year on record, but it is also the first year with all days over 1°C warmer than the pre-industrial period.
  • Amongst the world’s largest cities, Houston, Texas, experienced the longest streak of extreme heat.  Source
  • Renewable power is not only cost-competitive; it’s also the most cost-effective energy source in many situations, depending on the location and season. About 20% of all U.S. electricity comes from renewable energy sources, 60% from fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, and natural gas, and the remainder from nuclear energy.
  • Can erratic and extreme weather events be linked to global warming?  Yes.
  • The fastest way to deep-decarbonize and improve energy efficiency and productivity is by reducing friction and electrifying industrial heating with the Electric Airtorch®. Compact Thermal RadiatorsMightySteam® and the  Cascade E-ION, CleanElectricFlame®.
  • The electrification of industrial heating equipment offers one of the lowest costs per KW, making it one of the quickest impact strategies to lower global emissions.

5/5/2024

Did you know?

  • The book publishing industry is the third-largest industrial greenhouse gas emitter globally, producing more than 40 million metric tons of CO2 annually. The US publishing industry alone uses 32 million trees annually to make books. Producing ten 200-page books from fresh-fiber-based paper emits about 11 kilograms of CO2, while books from recycled paper emit about 9 kilograms. Source.
  • Reading the same on an electronic device  – about eight kilograms of CO₂ resulting from manufacture and usage.   Data centers and data transmission networks are responsible for almost 1% of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. AI could use half a percent of the world’s electricity by 2027. Source.
  • Higher temperatures and humidity can cause books to break down faster. For example, leather can rot, and fibers can shrink. Source.
  • A world without books and written communication is unthinkable. We must decarbonize in sectors where we can. There is a possibility of quickly eliminating fossil fuels in industrial heating and significantly reducing GHG emissions. It can impact the drying-related CO2 emissions in the book industry.
  • The fastest way to deep-decarbonize and improve energy efficiency and productivity is by reducing friction and electrifying industrial heating with the Electric Airtorch®,  MightySteam®Compact Thermal Radiators, and the  Cascade eION, cleanelectricflame®.
  • The electrification of industrial heating equipment offers one of the lowest costs per KW, making it one of the quickest impact strategies to lower global emissions.

4/28/2024

  • Many smart engineering devices enable an advantage by amplifying the available ability. Amplification, which leads to an Advantage in Force or Temperature, is a valuable consequence of conserving energy and power.
  • Mechanical Advantage:    A lever amplifies an input force to provide a greater output force, which is very useful. A mechanical advantage is equal to the ratio of the output force to the input force. As such, the lever is a mechanical advantage device, trading off force against movement. A similar mechanical amplification happens on blocks and tackles or in any gear system..
  • Pascal’s law is another example of the mechanical advantage: a small force applied to a small diameter column can counter-balance a much larger force because any pressure change in a confined incompressible fluid is transmitted equally.
  • Energy is a property that is always the combination of an intensive property like the Pressure (P) and an Extensive Property like the volume (V). A small change in pressure or large volume change is equivalent to a large pressure and a small volume change, which, along with an equation called the Giibs-Duhem equation, permits a mechanical and other thermodynamic advantage. Energy has other forms. For example, the temperature multiplied by entropy or the chemical potential multiplied by mass is also energy.
  • Like mechanical Advantages, one can glean thermal or chemical advantages from processes.
  • Chemical Advantage is gleaned in catalysis, where the energy hump to be overcome for a forward reaction is reduced by the catalyst.
  • Thermal Advantage is a feature of heat pumps; the heat (thermal energy) is gathered by a fluid at a low temperature and delivered to a higher temperature, like in a refrigerator, and the fluid returns to collect more heat. Heat Pumps provide a thermal amplification advantage compared to direct heating.   The Advantage comes from the low power to move heat from a low temperature to a high temperature by moving fluid in a closed loop and utilizing a phase change reservoir instead of simply heating the low-temperature fluid. Here, the loss is noted in the large change in Entropy.
  • Thermodynamic advantage is however mitigated when new entropy is produced.
  • The fastest way to deep-decarbonize and improve energy efficiency and productivity is by reducing friction and electrifying industrial heating with the Electric Airtorch®,  MightySteam®Compact Thermal Radiators, and the  Cascade eION, cleanelectricflame®.

The electrification of industrial heating equipment offers one of the lowest costs per KW, making it one of the quickest impact strategies to lower global emissions.

4/21/2024

  • Energy awareness is essential – for saving both the quantity and quality of energy. Minor fixes can make a significant difference. For example, proper tire pressure is essential for optimized energy efficiency and driving comfort.
  • The global diurnal temperature range (DTR) is projected to increase significantly at low latitudes and decrease at high latitudes. Source.
  • Temperatures change whether diurnal or at global warming time scales; both impact the weather and tire pressure variability.
  • A car’s tire pressure changes with temperature. For every 10°F increase in temperature, tire pressure increases by about one psi.
  • Properly inflated tires reduce rolling resistance, improving fuel efficiency.
  • Overinflation can cause loss of traction and uneven tire wear.
  • Underinflated tires, on the other hand, flex more than they should. This can reduce a car’s responsiveness, making it more challenging to steer or brake. The increased friction from underinflated tires leads to low gas mileage. Vehicles running on soft tires contribute as much as 1.5 extra tons of greenhouse gases to the environment annually.
  • The fastest way to deep-decarbonize and improve energy efficiency and productivity is by reducing friction and electrifying industrial heating with the Electric Airtorch®,  MightySteam®Compact Thermal Radiators, and the  Cascade eION, cleanelectricflame®.

The electrification of industrial heating equipment offers one of the lowest costs per KW, making it one of the quickest impact strategies to lower global emissions.

4/14/2024

Did you know one can be mission-ready for zero GHGs (greenhouse gas emissions), energy savings, water savings, and permanent metallic antimicrobial clean surfaces with MHI Inc.’s innovative, sustainable, and responsible climate solutions?

The electrification of industrial heating equipment offers one of the lowest costs per KW, making it one of the quickest impact strategies to lower global emissions – a summary.

4/7/2024

Did you know?

  • Energy is often stored in a different form than its used form.
  • A battery is a device that converts chemical energy into electric energy.   Batteries are a big help for decarbonization.
  • Although we think of batteries as small-sized (like AA, which stores 4 W-hours), they can be much bigger, for example, the 1200 MWh Lithium-Ion battery (now reported to be 3000 MWh) in California.
  • The biggest size batteries for home use range from 4-32 kWh energy capacity. A 32 KWH battery can power a typical home with a 4 kW power requirement for 8 hours.
  • The big battery in Electric Vehicles (EVs) has a capacity of about 50-200 kWh. An EV uses about 8 kWh of energy to cruise at 50 mph. The energy use can double at 70 mph.
  • The thermal battery is another essential type that can assist with decarbonization. Such batteries store energy as heat and can deliver it at high temperatures. The heat is used when needed by an industrial user or a cold-climate community with a very high electric-to-heat-delivery conversion efficiency.
  • Reports show thermal batteries can provide reliable heat at 3¢ to 6¢ per kWh of thermal output.
  • The fastest way to deep-decarbonize and improve energy efficiency and productivity is by reducing friction and electrifying industrial heating with the Electric Airtorch®,  MightySteam®, Compact Thermal Radiators, and the  Cascade eION, cleanelectricflame®.
  • The electrification of industrial heating equipment offers one of the lowest costs per KW, making it one of the quickest impact strategies to lower global emissions.

3/31/2024

Did you know?

3/24/2024

Did you know?

  • Lightning discharges in the troposphere sometimes send vertical columns called jets up into the ionosphere – a layer of atmosphere above the troposphere. Climate-driven changes in the troposphere that increase lightning activity can disrupt the conditions in the ionosphere.  Across the ionosphere, electron densities typically vary with height and diurnally from a hundred electrons to a million electrons per cubic centimeter.
  • The conditions in the ionosphere can be affected in other ways. A total solar eclipse will cross North America on April 8, 2024, passing over Mexico, the United States, and Canada and will impact the ionosphere.   During a solar eclipse, the reduction in solar radiation leads to a decrease in ionization, particularly in the ionosphere region at an altitude of around 35 to 55 miles (the region of the steepest variation with height of the electron density).  This decrease in ionization and electron density can cause a temporary drop in the density of electrons in the ionosphere.
  • Electron density changes affect radio wave propagation, particularly in the high frequency, or HF, range, which relies on ionospheric reflection for long-distance communication. HF is used for communication by commercial airlines and ship-to-ship services.  Microwaves (used for satellite communications)  pass through the ionosphere.
  • The fastest way to deep-decarbonizeand improve energy efficiency and productivity is by reducing friction and electrifying industrial heating with the Electric Airtorch® ,  MightySteam®, and EION
  • Electrification of industrial heating equipment offers one of the lowest costs per KW, making it one of the quickest impact strategies to lower global emissions.

3/17/2024

Did you know?

  • The North Star is a triple star system, with a second star, Polaris B, orbiting the brighter star, Polaris A. It’s estimated to be around 70 million years old, less than 2% of Earth’s age. Polaris is the brightest star in Ursa Minor.
  • Polaris is seen in the Northern Hemisphere, almost directly over the North Pole. Polaris and its southern hemisphere equivalent, Sigma Octanis, are the only stationary stars in the night sky. The North Star cluster is about 447.6 light-years from Earth. Light travels at 186,000 miles per second, so it takes about 320 years for light from Polaris to reach Earth
  • The companion stars (Polaris A and Polaris B) are yellow-white dwarfs. Such stars have a surface temperature between 6,000 and 7,600 K and are 1.0 to 1.4 times the mass of the Sun. Polaris is the brightest star in Ursa Minor.
  • Polaris has been aligned above the north celestial pole for around 2,000 years. It seems attached to the firmament or even acts as a fastener for the sky when other stars orbit it, so it is handy for navigation. It is often called the ‘star of the seas.
  • Generations of sailors from various civilizations relied heavily on the North Star to help guide ships until modern instruments like the compass and GPS were invented
  • Climate change causes changes in the poles’ density and alters the Earth’s tilt.   After 2000 years, this may finally alter the otherwise reliable star-based sea navigation method.
  • The fastest way to deep-decarbonize and improve energy efficiency and productivity is by reducing friction and electrifying industrial heating with Electric Airtorch® and MightySteam® – industrial heating electrification equipment costs are one of the lowest per KW.

3/10/2024

Did you know?

  • Decarbonized clean high-temperature steam is an antimicrobial agent?   One of the most important reasons to use steam is that it cleans with a nontoxic reagent, namely – water.
  • Several studies now available suggest that using steam above its inversion temperature allows various levels of cleaning such as grime removal and antibacterial action.
  • Steam above the inversion temperature leads to a dry surface without messy residue.
  • Products like the OAB®,MightySteam®  and SaniZap® offer high wet-temperature instant steam with on-off features.
  • Steam cleans, sanitizes, and deodorizes when used properly with the correct residence time.  High-temperature steam cleaning can kill 99.999 percent of bacteria, germs, and dust mites when above 200ºC for the correct residence time.  The list includes E. coli, Staph bacteria, Salmonella and other micro-organisms, surface molds, bacteria, viruses, and other dirty critters lurking around the house, like flies and bedbugs.  HealthySurface®.
  • Steam also cleans grime.  It removes dirt, loosens stains, and powers through grease and grime without the elbow grease needed in traditional cleaning.  This means less time scrubbing.
  • Steam above the inversion temperature steam removes odors from soft surfaces such as mattresses, carpets, and upholstery without any new allergens.
  • Steam should be directedat any hard or soft surface with proper care.  It’s a great cleaning tool from floor to ceiling.
  • Here is just a partial list of things that you can clean and disinfect with steam: sealed flooring (hardwood, tile, natural stone, laminate, vinyl), toilet and surrounding area, countertops, oven, stove top, pet bedding, mattresses, upholstery, children’s toys, refrigerator, pantry shelves, and laundry areas.  Each type requires some experience.  Click for articles on how to Cleanfood.
  • Cleaning with steam replaces expensive cleaners and disinfectants.  Did you know one can save the chemical energy that resides in powerful cleaners – the use of steam can save time and energy.  Read a case study for bird-dropping removal.

3/3/2024

2/24/2024

The Earth’s atmosphere comprises several layers.

  • Troposphere: is about 10 kilometers high at mid-latitudes, About 20 Km at the equator, and about six at the poles. This layer contains almost all the weather. The temperature decreases with height to about -60°C.   Most airplane flights are in this region.
  • Stratosphere:  This is the region from the upper boundary of the Troposphere to about 50 kilometers above the Earth’s surface. The temperature increases with height back to about 0°C. This region contains the ozone layer. Balloons can reach the calm Stratosphere.
  • Mesosphere: This region extends from the stratopause (the upper boundary of the Stratosphere) to about 85 kilometers above the surface of the Earth. The temperature decreases with height down to about -120°C. Shooting stars originate here. Reentry vehicle surfaces will get hot, transiting this region from friction while crossing into the Stratosphere.
  • Thermosphere:  This is the thickest layer in the atmosphere. Only the lightest gases, mainly oxygen, helium, water vapor, and hydrogen, are found here. This region is the low-orbit habitat for satellites. The Thermosphere extends from the Mesopause (the upper boundary of the mesosphere) to 690 kilometers above the surface of the Earth. This region is where the kinetic energy of gas molecules is the highest, so the temperature is high, ~ 2000°C.   Regardless, it is a very sparse region that will feel cold to the touch. The Aurora Borealis lights originate here.
  • Ionosphere: The ionosphere is a layer of free electrons and ions that reflect radio waves. This region has three sublayers and can mingle with other layers of the atmosphere.
  • Exosphere: The region where air molecules escape from the Thermosphere into space is the exosphere. When the Sun is calm, the exosphere can extend 10,000 kilometers.

The Troposphere is the region most affected by emissions from burning fossil fuels. The fastest way to deep-decarbonize and improve energy efficiency and productivity is by reducing friction and electrifying industrial heating with the Electric Airtorch® and MightySteam® – the capital costs of industrial heating electrification equipment are one of the lowest per KW.

2/17/2024

  • The speed of sound is around 767 miles per hour (about 340m/s) in air. Sound intensity relates to a pressure difference in the sound wave. The generally established audio frequency range is 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz, though most people can hear less than this entire range, and as they get older, the range tends to contract on both ends.
  • Sound travels faster in high-density materials. When traveling through water, sound is four times faster than when it travels through air.
  • Blue whales make a deafening whistling call to each other. These noises are known as sirens and can reach up to 188 dB, louder than a jet engine or a grenade explosion. But this is not the loudest in the ocean – a sperm whale makes that -230 dB – a small tiger piston shrimp makes a similar loud noise.
  • The loud noise you create by cracking a whip occurs because the tip breaks the speed of sound! The speed of sound waves is independent of the source’s motion, but the source’s motion influences sound frequency. Hence the Doppler effect.
  • There is maximum speed of sound. It is about 36 kilometers per second, about 8000 times lower than the speed of light in a vacuum. The maximum speed of sound is likely to be observed in solid hydrogen (citation).
  • The loudest sound in air 310dB in recorded history, was the sound of the volcanic eruption on the Indonesian island Krakatoa on August 27, 1883. The explosion caused two-thirds of the island to collapse and formed tsunami waves as high as 46 m (~150 ft), rocking ships as far away as South Africa. The wave went around the Earth almost four times.
  • The fastest way to deep-decarbonize and improve energy efficiency and productivity is by reducing friction and electrifying industrial heating with Electric Airtorch® and MightySteam® – industrial heating electrification equipment costs are one of the lowest per KW.

2/11/2024

Did you know?

The increase of CO2 in the troposphere is directly correlated to climate change.  The climate change triggered by global warming is experienced through cloudiness, humidity, rain, heat waves, hail, hurricanes, and floods.      

Did you know?

  • Weather-related disasters increase depression in human beings and possibly in other species.
  • Intense precipitation can affect drinking water by overwhelming sewage, waste, and stormwater drainage systems.
  • Global warming leads to a lowering in the nutritional value of wheat and rice.
  • Climate change is known to increase the number of Asthma attacks.
  • The habitat of birds and mosquitos is affected by climate change, impacting human health.
  • The only way to stabilize the atmospheric CO2 content in the near term is to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions, i.e., to decarbonize.
  • The fastest way to deep-decarbonize and improve energy efficiency and productivity is by reducing friction and electrifying industrial heating with Electric Airtorch® and MightySteam® – industrial heating electrification equipment costs are one of the lowest per KW

2/4/2024

Did you know?

  • Setting back your thermostat for at least 8 hours daily can save you as much as 10% per year on energy costs.
  • Air with the right amount of humidity can make you feel more comfortable in the winter. In the summer, low humidity helps you cool off faster.
  • Humidity increases the specific heat of air. The skin can feel cooler with humid or dry air depending on the temperature conditions –  humid air absorbs more heat than dry air, but dry air can cause more rapid evaporation than humid air.
  • High humidity/dewpoints in the summer and cold winds in the winter are important because they affect how our bodies “feel” outside.
  • What is the Heat Index? It depends on the humidity: The higher the air temperature and relative humidity, the hotter it feels to our bodies, and the higher the heat index.
  • What is the Wind Chill Index? It depends on cold winds:  In winter, strong winds make the skin feel colder, and the wind chill index reflects this.
  • In the past, humidity control was only possible by opening and closing boiler vales. Modern steam generators can regulate the volume flow of steam automatically.
  • The fastest way to deep-decarbonize and improve energy efficiency and productivity is by reducing friction and electrifying industrial heating with MW Airtorch® and MightySteam® –industrial heating electrification equipment costs are one of the lowest per KW.

1/28/2024

Did you know?

  • A total solar eclipse will be visible in large parts of North America on April 8, 2024. The path of the eclipse is from Texas to Maine. The next total solar eclipse in North America will not be until March 30, 2033, and will be visible only in Alaska. The area on the ground covered by totality is typically about 50 miles wide.
  • Data obtained from the June 21, 2020, total solar eclipse showed the Earth cooling by almost 6°C, an ozone level drop of almost 50%, and changes in wind speeds. The lowered atmospheric temperatures can last several minutes after the eclipse has passed. The typical time under a region of a  total eclipse lasts about 4 minutes.
  • The sun provides the energy that controls the Earth’s surface temperature – which alters the tropospheric entropy rate generation, causing diurnal and extended time-scale weather and climate variations.  The Earth’s average surface temperature influences thundercloud intensification.
  • During an eclipse, the atmosphere becomes more stable due to the quick cooling of the air because of the lowered demand on the entropy production rate.
  • A total solar eclipse can also affect the temperature and density of the ionosphere.
  • If the coverage of land clouds increases – as predicted by global warming models of the tropospheric cloud formations, the 2033 eclipse may be challenging to observe from North America. A total solar eclipse takes almost 100 years to repeat in any region.

1/21/2024

According to available data, the Earth’s daily average surface temperature in 2023 was at least 1K warmer than pre-industrial averages for the entire year and above 1.5K for almost 180 days. Did you know?

  • Two days in November 2023  showed an unwelcome 2K temperature increase of the Earth’s average temperature over the baseline.
  • The average tropospheric CO2 concentration in 2023 rose to 421 ppm, about 2.4 ppm higher than in 2022.   CO2 is a key greenhouse gas that traps radiation and aids in increasing atmospheric temperature.
  • Fossil Fuel combustion adds CO2 to the atmosphere.   There is a significant social cost to burning carbon-containing fossil fuels.
  • New research became available in 2023 that relates the tropospheric temperature and the CO2 concentrations to the increasing rate of the entropy generation in the troposphere of about 10^(-8)J/(m^(3).K.s.ppm(CO2)).
  • The tropospheric entropy generation rate is related to extreme weather events. In 2023, record-high temperature averages sparked heatwaves, floods, atmospheric rivers, unusual hail, and wildfires worldwide, with an estimated $16 million per hour loss from climate disasters worldwide.
  • Global warming, which leads to climate change, is degrading the planet and possibly impacting inflation by reducing productivity.

The fastest way to deep-decarbonize and increase productivity is by reducing friction and electrifying industrial heating with MW Airtorch® and MightySteam®  – industrial heating electrification equipment costs are one of the lowest per KW.

1/14/2024

According to available data, the Earth’s daily average surface temperature in 2023 was at least 1K warmer than pre-industrial averages for the entire year and above 1.5K for almost 180 days. Did you know?

  • Two days in November 2023  showed an unwelcome 2K temperature increase of the Earth’s average temperature over the baseline.
  • The average tropospheric CO2 concentration in 2023 rose to 421 ppm, about 2.4 ppm higher than in 2022.   CO2 is a key greenhouse gas that traps radiation and aids in increasing atmospheric temperature.
  • Fossil Fuel combustion adds CO2 to the atmosphere.   There is a significant social cost to burning carbon-containing fossil fuels.
  • New research became available in 2023 that relates the tropospheric temperature and the CO2 concentrations to the increasing rate of the entropy generation in the troposphere of about 10^(-8)J/(m^(3).K.s.ppm(CO2)).
  • The tropospheric entropy generation rate is related to extreme weather events. In 2023, record-high temperature averages sparked heatwaves, floods, atmospheric rivers, unusual hail, and wildfires worldwide, with an estimated $16 million per hour loss from climate disasters worldwide.
  • Global warming, which leads to climate change, is degrading the planet and possibly impacting inflation by reducing productivity.
  • The fastest way to deep-decarbonize and increase productivity is by reducing friction and electrifying industrial heating with MW Airtorch® and MightySteam®  – industrial heating electrification equipment costs are one of the lowest per KW.

1/08/2024

  • Did you know: The speed of sound measures how quickly a pressure change transmits from one place to another. Although light can travel through a vacuum (deep space), sound requires a medium. Sound velocity is a function of material density, the material’s acoustic impedance, and temperature.
    • The speed of sound waves is independent of the source’s motion, but the source’s motion influences the frequency of sound. Hence the Doppler effect.
    • There is maximum speed of sound. It is about 36 kilometers per second, about 8000 times lower than the speed of light in a vacuum. The maximum speed of sound is likely to be observed in solid hydrogen (citation).
    • The speed of sound in water in air is about 343m/s, in water is about 1483 m/s, and in steel, it is about 4512 m/s.
    • The speed of sound is dependent on temperature. As the temperature of the air increases, the speed of sound increases in the air.
    • When traveling above Mach 1, the compressibility of the air introduces drag and heating. The Space Shuttle re-enters the atmosphere at high hypersonic speeds (M ~ 25). The heated air becomes ionized gas or other types of plasma. An re-entering spacecraft must be insulated from the high temperatures of the plasma.
    • Distances can be measured by the time sound takes to travel. If you count the number of seconds between the flash of lightning and the sound of thunder and divide by 5, you’ll get the distance in miles to the lightning.
    • Lightning strikes are increasing because of global warming. The fastest way to decarbonizeis by reducing friction and electrifying industrial heating.

12/30/2023

Did you know the scale of objects we encounter spans many orders of magnitude?

  • The tropospheric depth is 7000 m at the poles and 20000 m at the equator. The height of the troposphere above the Earth contains our weather.
  • Deepest ocean trench: 10,994 m
    Highest Mountain: 8,850 m (m-meter)
    Human scale: ~1 m
    Pencil tip: ~1 mm (mm-millimeter)
    Grain of salt: ~0.1-1 mm
    Bacterium: ~1-10 um (um- micrometer)
  • New Friction Texture: 100 nm (nm- nanometer)
  • Atoms/molecules ~0.1 nm-100nm
    Electrons: ~10^-7 nm (nanometer) (^ indicates – raised to the power of)
    Planck’s length: ~1.616 x 10^-26 nm (the smallest measurable length)
  • Nano-materials and nano-textures display grain and asperity sizes with dimensions of a thousandth of human hair.

The fastest way to decarbonize is by reducing friction and electrifying industrial heating.

 12/23/2023

Did you know  Climate Change Impacts Rocks?

  • Rocks have been an essential natural resource for humans. The first tools produced by humans were from stone/rocks.  Most rocks are composed of minerals often mixed with organic matter.
  • Rocks are classified by how they are formed, their composition, and their texture. Granite, limestone, marble, sandstone, and slate are common rock materials.
  • Temperatures between 500 and 1,400 degrees Celsius are required to melt a rock, turning it into a substance called magma (molten rock).
  • The rock cycle is a concept in geology that describes transitions through geologic time among the three main rock types: sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous.
  • Climate change can impact rocks and magma in a few ways:
    • Glaciers put pressure on the Earth’s surface, restricting magma flow. When the glaciers melt, magma can move more freely, bubbling to the surface and erupting more easily.
    • Volcanic carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, can potentially promote global warming.
    • As glaciers and ice sheets melt, the pressure on the Earth’s surface decreases. This can produce more molten rock, or magma, in the mantle.
    • Reducing pressure lowers the melting temperature, making it easier for more deeply buried magma chambers to escape their confinement and erupt.
    • Volcano Steaming of a rock can reduce its melting point.

12/17/2023

Did you know,

December 11, 2023

Did you know that the heating of the troposphere and the Earth’s surface is causing changes to our Seas and Oceans?

  • Global warming because of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) causes thermal expansion, leading to the seas expanding (rising). Ice melting on land and the sea also contributes to rising sea levels. Sea level rise is now about ~4.5 mm/year:
  • Oceans are acidifying. The oceans absorb CO2 from the atmosphere, which makes it more acidic. Oxygen levels in the ocean have decreased.
  • Ocean currents are changing, affecting the distribution of warm water around the planet.
  • Heat waves cause coral mortalities. Heat waves also cause damage to mangroves and marine diversity. A warming of 1.5°C (The reference period is from pre-industrial times circa 1850–1900) threatens to destroy 70 to 90 percent of coral reefs.
  • A loss of marine diversity may impact nearly half of the world’s population (3.3 billion), who depend on fish for protein.

December 2, 2023

Did you know?

  • Wind is the flow of air from high-pressure to low-pressure regions. These can range from soft, gentle breezes to destructive windstorms.
  • Not all winds are from gas flow –  solar wind in outer space is a stream of charged particles from the Sun.
  • Any wind can result in a force when interrupted – sails help propel a boat/ship or spaceship. Such forces are utilized in windmills to produce work.
  • Saturn experiences hydrogen and helium gas winds. Winds can reach 1,100 miles per hour at the Equator of Saturn.
  • Neptune has the strongest winds in the solar system (again, helium and hydrogen gas plus something unknown that makes it look blue). Winds on Neptune have speeds of up to 1,300 miles per hour.
  • Such winds are 1.5 times faster than the speed of sound!
  • Damaging winds may have become nearly five times more common in the central United States – attributable to the tropospheric warming.
  • The fastest way to decarbonize is by electrifying industrial heating.

November 23, 2023

Happy Thanksgiving

Did you know

  • Crops and other plants grow better in the presence of higher carbon dioxide levels and seem to be more drought-tolerant. The downside is that invasive plant species and insect pests will thrive in a warmer world.
  • The Earth has become five percent greener in the past two decades.  The increase in leaf area over the past two decades is as significant as that of the Amazon rainforest coverage.

Yet

  • The summer of 2023 was the hottest on record. Temperatures in June 2023 were 0.5C above the 1991-2020 average.
  • CO2 emissions and other greenhouse gas emissions continue to increase in the troposphere.

Positive Trends

  • There is renewed social pressure to do something about CO2 and GHG emissions. Some examples are hybrid and electric vehicles, solar panels, the recent decline in Amazon Rainforest deforestation, and social attention to energy efficiency in large installations with  process heaters or steam generators.
  • The fastest way to decarbonizeis by electrifying industrial heating.

November 17, 2023

Did you know

  • The first trees appeared on Earth between 350 and 420 million years ago in the Devonian period. The first “tree” was called Archaeopteris – somewhat like Conifers.
  • The Great Basin Bristlecone Pine (Pinus longaeva) is the oldest tree, ~ 5,000 years old.
  • A tree cross-section shows several light and dark ring patterns.  These rings can tell us how old the tree is and what the weather was like during each year of the tree’s life.  Tree ring spacings grow wider in warm, wet years and thinner in cold and dry years.
  • Although,  Dendrochronologists tend to assign a single calendar year to a single ring.  Ring counting does not ensure the accurate dating of each ring.
  • Tree-ring data can be hundreds or thousands of years old and contain significant historical information.  Ring spacings and features allow scientists to extend climate records to periods well before modern weather instruments were deployed.
  • A 1,200-year-long examination based on tree ring patterns has revealed that the global warming we are experiencing is unprecedented.
  • The fastest way to decarbonize is by electrifying industrial heating.

November 11, 2023

Did you know

November 5, 2023

You did know

  • Rain is water droplets falling from clouds. For rain to fall to the ground, all the following conditions need to be met.
    • clouds become saturated, the temperature falls below the dew point, a condensed phase is nucleated, and the droplets coalesce to become large enough that updrafts are not able to prevent them from falling to the ground, and, the the falling droplets cannot evaporate before hitting the ground..
  • Rain can weigh a lot. One inch of rain falling on one acre of ground weighs over 100 Tons.
  • Antarctica is the driest place on Earth. Not the equator.
  • Rain has a distinctive smell. As rain falls through the atmosphere, it absorbs chemicals and gases.  When blended with oils produced by plants, rain has a fresh, earthy smell.
  • Rainfall that happens on other planets is different from the rain we encounter here on Earth. Other planets and their moons experience rain of methane (e.g., on Venus), neon, sulfuric, or even iron rather than water.
  • Rain patterns are changing because of global warming. The weather is more severe.  There is more lightning.
  • Industrial decarbonization with electrification is a good path forward.

October 29, 2023

Did you know

  • The oceans keep us fresh with oxygen.   The oxygen suppliers for Earth are cyanobacteria – tiny water-dwelling organisms that survive by photosynthesis. Plankton, seaweed, and other photosynthesize produce more than half of the world’s oxygen. Forests add a fair amount.  The bacteria convert carbon dioxide and water into organic carbon and free oxygen. Plant-based marine organisms produce fresh air.  But it was not always so.
  • When Earth formed 4.6 billion years ago, from a hot mix of gases and solids, it had almost no atmosphere. The surface was molten. As Earth cooled, an atmosphere formed mainly from gases spewed from volcanoes. It included hydrogen sulfide, methane, and a hundred times as much carbon dioxide as today’s atmosphere.
  • When the Earth first formed, any free oxygen combined quickly with hydrogen, carbon, and gases from volcanic plumes   Much later the methane lost its hydrogen, by decomposition, leaving behind nitrogen in the atmosphere. Nitrogen and the available excess Oxygen filled the Earth’s atmosphere.  Oxide crusts (solid) formed with the reaction of iron and other metals with oxygen.   Nitrogen in the atmosphere dilutes oxygen and prevents rapid burning at the Earth’s surface.  All living things need Nitrogen to make protein.
  • About 250 million years back eruptions in Siberia triggered the most destructive mass extinctions, releasing a gigantic pulse of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and nearly choking off all life.
  • Oxygen is the second most abundant element in the Earth, after iron. While most of the oxygen was in crusty rocks, some oxygen atoms formed water molecules and carbon dioxide molecules. These molecules came out of volcanoes as gases and formed the ocean and the atmosphere.
  • Methane is a very potent greenhouse gas much more than CO2.  With the loss of methane in the upper atmosphere billions of years back, the earth cooled significantly.
  • The present rise of CO2 in the atmosphere from industrial fossil fuel burning is now the cause of warming temperatures and destructive weather again.

October 21, 2023

Did you know?

The share of total estimated industrial energy consumption from fossil-fuel burning is as high as 70-75%. Almost all of this can be electrified with enhanced efficiency.

  • The chemical manufacturing industry is the most energy-intensive subsector within the manufacturing sector in the United States. Energy use for manufacturing is the highest in Petroleum products, Paper products, Primary metals such as iron, steel, and aluminum, Ceramic products, Cement, Food and drink, and several non-specific use industries.
  • About 70% of the world’s heat production in the temperature range of 100-400°C  is today made by fossil fuel burning of oil, natural gas, and coal with only about 80% efficiency.
  • MHI’s Electric Airtorch® and Electric OAB® MightySteam® systems operate at efficiencies greater than 95% in this temperature range.

Industrial Electrification Sectors

October 14, 2023

Did you know

  • Boomerangs were first invented thousands of years ago as weapons to hunt prey.  There are three types of Boomerang but only one is designed to return to you.
  • A returning boomerang has two or more wings joined at an angle of between 80 and 120 degrees.  A right-handed return Boomerang is launched close to upright (vertical).
  • A boomerang is an example of gyroscopic precession.
  • When a boomerang is thrown, the top wing moves faster through the air than the bottom wing.  This creates a torque that makes the boomerang tilt and gradually return to the thrower.
  • Did you know that the rotation of an object with three unequal principal axes is stable around its first and third principal axes of rotation, but the rotation around its second principal axis is unstable.  This behavior is called the tennis racquet theorem, which relates to the difficulty of flipping a tennis racquet. Or the Dzhanibekov effect.
  • This effect prevented Explorer 1, the first US satellite, from behaving as planned in 1958.  The elongated body of the spacecraft had been designed to spin about its long (lowest inertia) axis.  The satellite’s rotation was unstable, and it flipped over and started windmilling through space.

October 7, 2023

Did you know?

  • Scientists estimate the early Earth temperature was about ~2,300K (2027°C or 3,680°F).
  •  Tungsten (W) has the highest melting point of any metal in the periodic table: 3422 °C. No wonder Tungsten and a close cousin, Molybdenum (Mo), are the constituents in several high-temperature alloys.
  •  The Earth’s internal temperatures at the Inner core is estimated to be as high as 7,000 °C. Outer core – estimated to be between 4,000 and 6,000 °C. Mantle – estimated to be around 870°C. Surface Average: ~278K (15°C, 59°F)
  •  The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the Earth’s average surface temperature is about ~1°C hotter now with the increase in greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activities.
  •  The rate of warming since 1981 is more than twice as fast as before. It is now 0.18°C (0.32°F) per decade. The warming increases the entropy production rate in the troposphere, leading to extreme weather occurrences.

 The only way to stop this warming quickly is by reducing CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions – the most rapid method is to reduce fossil fuel burning for industrial purposes.

September 30, 2023

Did you know of the methods for saving industrial energy

September 23, 2023

  • Why is a mirror reflective? A mirror is essentially glass coated with a thin film of metal, such as silver. The conduction electrons are the source of electrical conductivity in silver. When light attempts to penetrate metal, they oscillate in a manner that cancels the electric field of light and prohibits light from entering beyond a few atomic layers. The smoothness of a mirror’s glass and metal coating ensures that this surface reflection is specular, i.e., the angles of incidence and reflection of light are the same. On the other hand, a sheet of paper is neither conductive nor polished for specular reflection and thus is not reflective.
  • Butterfly wings have tiny scales covered with microscopic ridges and other structures. These play with light waves to create brilliant purple/blues and speckles of colors. Instead of a coloring chemical, the texture establishes the concentration of wavelengths.  Click here for more information.
  • What is Deburr? A change of texture at the nanoscale is called nanoscale deburring. Deburring in seconds for metallic alloys is possible  with the Cascade e-Ion. How does the  Cascade e-ion change the surface roughness?  Does it impact the color of the surface?    Does it affect friction?
  • Did you know that reducing friction in the transportation sector is an excellent way of reducing energy use and enhancing the retained quality of energy?  Reducing energy use for an objective  is a way to impact climate change.

September 17, 2023

Did you know clean, high-temperature dry steam has several applications based on the unique properties of steam?

The present-day electrical steam generators offer variable steam, no idling, variable temperature, and variable pressures, all settable on touch screens. The energy efficiency of electric steam generators vastly exceeds what was available five years back from pressure boilers. The energy efficiencies are near 98%, even for 300°C instant steam output. Some unique properties of high-temperature dry steam are:

September 9, 2023

Did you know?

What could be a cheaper and more effective route to CO2 emission reduction in addition to Electric Vehicles?

  • Almost 1/3 of excess CO2 emissions arise from each of three sectors: transportationIndustrial heatingand power plants.
  • About 10 million Electric Vehicles (EVs) were sold in 2022. These EVs prevented the equivalent of 200,000 MW of CO2 emissions (approximately ~ 36 or more Kilotons per hour)
  • Each car, on average, outputs ~20 kW of power and costs US$ 50,000. So, to prevent 200,000 MW, we spend US$500 Billion or $2,500 per kW.
  • A  MW electric process heater with a 1000°C output costs $ 0.3-$1 Million. To save 200,000 MW of emissions, we spend only $ 300 -$ 1000 per KW for Industrial
  • Process Heating Electrification Units (as opposed to $2500 per kW for EVs). Thus, by electrifying industrial process heating in the Cement, Chemical and Metals Production, Industrial Parts Making, Food and Beverage, Ore drying, and Calcining industries, we can reduce 1/3 of the total excess CO2 emissions with only 20-40% of the expenditure required compared to EVs.
  • The calculations are approximate – we have not compared the materials that go into making EVs, nor have we included savings from eliminating NOx, CH4, SO2, and particulates, which are also of concern when using industrial fossil-fuel heaters.
  • EVs could be considered in certain parts of the world where ~$50,000 cars are sold.
  • However, everyone can participate by changing industrial heating to electrified methods anywhere in the world. This switch to electric heating can quickly stabilize CO2 levels.

September 2, 2023

The Boltzmann constant is one of the thermal sciences’ most critical physical constants.  This fundamental constant connects the microscopic world to the macroscopic world.

  • The Boltzmann constant is one of seven fixed-universal-constants (a few more exist but are under scrutiny!).  Fixed constants do not change with time or place of measurement. The other fixed constants are the speed of light in a vacuum, the Plancks constant, the elementary charge, the gravitational constant, the Avagadro number, and a lesser-known fine-structure constant.
  • Although Max Planck is believed to have been the first to introduce the constant, it is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, who understood that energy at the particle scale could be related to the energy of objects at the macroscale with this constant. The bridging of scales of observation and understanding of the universe is essential for acceptance of the laws of thermodynamics. The Boltzmann constant equals 1.380649 × 10-23 m2 kg s-2 K-1  (or simply J/K). When Max Planck first introduced it, it was set to 1.346×10-23 J/K by him in 1900, about 2.5% lower than today’s number! The constant establishes a relationship between:
  • Microscopic energy and temperature,
  • Wavelength of radiation and temperature,
  • Electrostatic potential and current

August 27, 2023

Did you know that steam is a useful chemical and energy source?

  • Plants take in water from the soil, carbon dioxide from the air, and energy from sunlight to make sugars.
  • This reaction that uses up CO2 is called photosynthesis. The overall reaction is [CO2 (carbon dioxide) + H2O (steam/water) + photons (sunlight)] yields  [CH2O]n (sugars) + O2(oxygen)].
  • Many more reactions with steam and CO2 can generate useful products like hydrogen.
  • The steam produced from reactions like chemical-digestion or calcination can be further heated to high temperatures in a Steam-Airtorch® and used for producing electrical work in steam turbines.
  • A reaction with steam that is used to produce energy molecules like hydrogen is the Methane Steam Reforming reaction (MSR).  However, this reaction produces CO2 ( a greenhouse gas).  There are other reactions that are also possible.
  • Read about steam, steam plasma, and electrically heated gas applications by clicking on the links below:

August 19, 2023

Did you know?

  • One can tell the temperature by counting a cricket’s chirps! Do you feel they are increasing in loudness and frequency?
  • Cats and dogs have been known to sense when a tornado is approaching by sensing the rapidly changing barometric pressure.
  • A heatwave can make train tracks bend! Hot weather also damages electric trains powered by sagging overhead wires – more Info.
  • About 2,000 thunderstorms spewing rain and hail occur every minute, some with lightning. About 10% are severe. Yes, these are increasing with global warming – more Info.
  • Wildfires can create tornadoes of fire called fire whirls. Lightning-caused wildfires are increasing with global warming. Today, one ton of CO2 emission causes huge asset damage.
  • Did you know it is time to prevent higher temperatures from global warming that leads to extreme weather?
  • The fastest decarbonization route is to electrify industrial heating which produces about a third of the excess CO2 emissions today – the other two are transportation and power generation.
  • Electrifying industrial heating is possible with the lowest capital costs per KW for decarbonization equipment.

August 12, 2023

  • Did you know we can all effectively help with decarbonization and make a rapid impact? Transportation, Industrial Heating, and Power Generation are the key excess GHG producers. Anything that improves efficiencies and eliminates fossil fuel heating is well worth tackling.
  • Fossil fuel burning accelerates the amounts of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. Our focus should be to reduce these quickly. There is a cost outlay when changing from fossil fuel burning to electric methods, but societies and nations must invest in this.
  • The following two high-impact action items are for people, governments, and industries to involve themselves with rapid, deep decarbonization.
    • Everyone can promote energy efficiency in daily life. Technologies that support efficiency across critical sectors will significantly impact urban decarbonization, particularly when the power used comes from fossil fuel power plants. For example, electric ovens with energy sensors, cool roofs, new thermal devices and materials, lesser use of air conditioning, lesser use of transportation that produces GHGs, water conservation, and smart grids could improve energy efficiency.
    • The best method for rapid, deep decarbonization is clear –  electrify high-power industrial heating and steam generation – perhaps the most cost-effective capital investment per KW of new electrical power usage for decarbonization. Although all carbon reduction methods should be encouraged, electrifying industrial heating could be more cost-effective than changing to Electric Vehicles.

August 5, 2023

Did you know

  • Climate change could be irreversible by 2030. ..lets act.
  • Greenhouse gas levels are at an all-time high. ..these cause global warming…let’s act.
  • More than 1 million species face extinction. The golden toad is perhaps the first species to go extinct due to climate change; several amphibians are at risk of extinction. …..let’s act.
  • Climate change could create a refugee crisis. … let’s act.
  • Climate change is accelerating the spread of infectious diseases like dengue and malaria… let’s act.
  • Our oceans are evaporating faster than before….. let’s act.
  • Changing to high-quality, high-efficacy industrial heating without fossil fuels will bring down levels… in many ways, it is better than tackling the problem with Electric vehicles…..let’s act.

July 30, 2023

Did you know?

  • A pattern of more frequent and intense weather events is occurring. As the Earth’s surface and troposphere have warmed, such intense weather has magnified. Scientists can relate Individual natural disasters to climate change related to increasing CO2 in the atmosphere. Source
  • Global warming can contribute to the intensity of heat waves by increasing the chances of sweltering days and nights. Source
  • It can also cause extremes in temperature and precipitation, leading to poor health and asset value losses.
  • A warming and moist atmosphere over the oceans makes hurricanes more intense and possibly produces more total rainfall.
  • Rapid decarbonization is required. MHI Inc. believes electrifying industrial heating is the fastest and lowest capital-cost decarbonization route.
  • Electrify industrial heating with the most efficient, fully computer-controlled, long-lasting systems with new materials and fluid flow technologies.

July 23, 2023

Did you know that it is now time to rapidly deep-decarbonize?

  • Scientists from NASA report that global temperatures in 2022 were ~ 0.9C above the average for NASA’s baseline period (1951-1980).  Source Click Here.
  • The U.S. Northeast had a widespread unusual “smoky day” on Wednesday (June 7, 2023), as a low-pressure system funneled toxic smoke from wildfires in Canada across the Atlantic Coast.
  • Similar smoke-gas is emitted when fossil fuels (natural gas, wood, coal, diesel, gasoline) are burnt for industrial heating.  Process heating contributes almost a third of excess CO2 emissions, causing severe climate problems.
  • MHI Inc. believes that the fastest decarbonization route is to electrify industrial heating.

July 14, 2023

The Coriolis effect, named after a French mathematician, describes the pattern of deflection taken by objects not firmly connected to the ground as they travel long distances around Earth. This effect causes the deflection of the air movement on Earth. The Earth’s equator travels about ~1,000 miles per hour relative to its axis. Closer to the poles, the velocity is much slower. Therefore, air moving from high latitudes to low feels like wind blowing to the east. On the other hand, air moving from low latitudes to high is deflected westwards.

Did you know?

  • Cyclones and trade winds are examples of the impact of the Coriolis effect.
  • As are atmospheric rivers. Atmospheric rivers are long, flowing regions of the atmosphere that carry water vapor through the sky. They are 250 to 375 miles wide and can be more than 1,000 miles long. Rivers on land generally flow downhill; atmospheric rivers flow in the direction of moving air created by weather systems.

July 07, 2023

Have you ever wondered why clocks turn clockwise?

Some of the earliest time tellers were sundials. In the northern hemisphere, the shadow of the dial traces clockwise as the sun moves through the sky. Therefore it is likely that the hands of the mechanical clocks developed during the 14th century were engineered to turn in the same direction.

Did you know?

  • There is typically no preferred direction of rotation for objects in the universe; on average, there are just as many counterclockwise as clockwise rotating objects.
  • Mechanical clocks were most likely invented in the northern hemisphere.   The hands would have probably moved anticlockwise if invented in the southern hemisphere –  because the sundial moves anticlockwise in that hemisphere. Or maybe that would have been called the clockwise direction?

July 1, 2023

Energy is what we pay for in electricity or gas heating bills.  A unit of electrical energy, particularly for utility bills, is the kilowatt-hour (kWh); one kilowatt-hour is equivalent to 3.6 MegaJoules—typically, 1 kWh of electric energy costs anywhere from 4¢ -10¢ in the US.

DiD YOU KNOW

  • The average US household uses 10,650 kWh per year.
  • An average electric vehicle (EV) uses about 4,300 kWh per year.
  • A single AI model trained on ~45 TB of data can consume as much as 27,650 kWh.
  • The data centers that house AI models currently consume about 2% of the world’s electricity.  The percentage will increase rapidly.
  • About 30% of the world’s energy is for industrial heating.
  • Industrial heating requires quick electrification to reduce its impact on climate change –  Methods for high-efficiency electrification.

June 24, 2023

Is Decarbonized clean steam an antimicrobial agent?  Steam offers a ton of benefits over conventional cleaning.  One of the most important reasons to use steam is that it cleans with nontoxic water.

  • Several studies now available suggest that using steam above its inversion temperature allows various levels of cleaning such as grime removal and antibacterial action.
  • Steam above the inversion temperature leads to a dry surface without messy residue.
  • Products like the OAB®, MightySteam®  and SaniZap® offer high wet-temperature instant steam with on-off features.
  • Steam cleans, sanitizes, and deodorizes.  Steam cleaning can kill 99.999 percent of bacteria, germs, and dust mites when above 200C for the correct residence time.  The list includes E. coli, Staph bacteria, Salmonella and other micro-organisms, surface molds, bacteria, viruses, and other dirty critters lurking around the house, like flies and bedbugs.  HealthySurface®.
  • Steam also cleans grime.  It removes dirt, loosens stains, and powers through grease and grime without the elbow grease needed in traditional cleaning.  This means less time scrubbing.
  • Steam above the inversion temperature steam removes odors from soft surfaces such as mattresses, carpets, and upholstery without any new allergens.
  • Steam can be directed at any hard or soft surface with proper care.  It’s a great cleaning tool from floor to ceiling.
  • Here is just a partial list of things that you can clean and disinfect with steam: sealed flooring (hardwood, tile, natural stone, laminate, vinyl), toilet and surrounding area, countertops, oven, stove top, pet bedding, mattresses, upholstery, children’s toys, refrigerator, pantry shelves, and laundry areas.  Each type requires some experience.  Click for articles on how to Clean food.
  • Cleaning with steam replaces expensive cleaners and disinfectants.  Did you know one can save the chemical energy that resides in powerful cleaners – the use of steam can save time and energy.  Read an case study for bird-dropping removal.

Models are available from kW to MW (Small to large steam rate production).

June 18, 2023

Did you know that the power (the energy consumed in unit time) is printed on most electric devices?

  • Home Sanitizing Devices: 1-4 kW ( Examples).
  • Light Bulbs:  ~0.03-0.2 kW.
  • Home Refrigerators/ Washers/ Dryers: 2-5 kW.
  • Electric Stoves: 4 kW.
  • Electric Cars: ~10-50+ kW. Electric cars and Hybrids often have a dash display for the power in kW.
  • Decarbonize with Electric Airtorch Devices (kW to MW) (Examples).
  • Decarbonize with Electric Steam Devices (kW to MW) (Examples).
  • Power is the amount of energy converted in a second.  Power is oomph! A more powerful device will be able to use the same amount of energy faster (speedier) than a less powerful device.  A higher power can accelerate an automobile, make a reaction go faster, and so on.
  • Electric machines are rated by their power. A higher-power machine is usually more expensive compared to a lower-power machine.
  • A Watt (W) is a unit of power.   1 J/s (Joule per second) = 1 W (Watt) .   More about Energy and Power.

The typical power units are (kJ/s, i.e., kW) or Btu/hr.   1kW (KiloWatt) = 3414 Btu/hr.  1 MW (MegaWatt) = 3.4121416331 MBtu/h

June 11, 2023

May 21, 2023

May 13, 2023

  • One of the largest stars in the known universe is UY Scuti, a red hypergiant with a radius almost 1,700 times larger than our Sun’s radius.   However, It does not have a fixed diameter – it changes at least 192 solar radii between measurements (a solar radius is about 432,300 miles, i.e., the radius of the Sun)
  • Did you know that UV Scuti is in our very own galaxy – the Milky Way?
  • UY Scuti is not the densest star. It’s just the biggest. Neutron stars are the densest stars in the universe.
  • The smallest stars (about a tenth of a solar radius) are red dwarfs. There is one located only ~4.2 light years away.
  • Saving our Earth from the adverse effects of climate change requires rapid electrification with efficient Industrial heating methods.

May 7, 2023

One looks for frozen-in clues to study past climates (called Paleoclimates). Such clues lead to discoveries like: the Sahara Desert was once covered by an ocean.

  • Trees provide clues – every year the tree grows, an added ring on its trunk makes the trunk wider – the thickness of a ring depends on what the climate was like at that time- broader in warm, wet years and thinner in cold, dry years.
  • The frozen layers in an ice core yield temperatures and carbon dioxide levels from the past.
  • Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide are known as “greenhouse gases” because they trap warmth from the sun and keep the Earth warm enough to live on. But too much greenhouse gas means an unusual increase in the Earth’s temperature as more heat is trapped. Since 1900, carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have increased by 30% to levels never experienced in paleoclimates. One reason for this increase is the burning of fossil fuels in factories (Industrial Heating). Carbon is released into the air as carbon dioxide when these fuels are burned.
  • The world is trying to decarbonize rapidly.
  • What can we do? The fastest way to address the situation is by converting all the high-power industrial heaters to electric heating. 

Did you know converting one MW of heating to electric heating can cut down almost 0.2 to 0.8 tons of equivalent CO2 emissions every hour at a lower cost per power-unit (equipment) than converting to electric vehicles? 

April 30, 2023

Did you know that just two graphs explain in simple terms the climate problem?

  • The Atmospheric CO2 content and Global Temperatures are Correlated
  • One can visualize/imagine that Global Warming is shifting the climate events in a manner that increases the probability of extreme climate events.  Original Source EPA (click here)

Both CO2 levels and Global Temperatures are Rising


A visual illustration of  global warming increasing the probability of extreme events by a shift in the mean and standard deviation of a event vs. probability plot where the mean shifts with the global average tempeature.

April 23, 2023

Did you know that electrification of industrial heating can assist significantly with lowering CO2 excess emissions?

How does electrification help industrial heating, and how much does a project pay back?

The emissions from natural gas-fired boilers and furnaces include nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), trace amounts of sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM).

Several of these gases in addition to CO2 cause global warming, some with much greater intensity than CO2.

  • 1 Kg of methane (CH4) = 25 Kg of CO2 equivalent
  • 1 Kg of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) = 294 Kg of CO2 equivalent

In 2021, U.S. CO2 emissions from natural gas combustion accounted for about 34% of total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions.

Click here for details on the emission amounts from a standard cubic foot natural gas combustion.

April 16, 2023

Did you know?

Looking for cheaper and more universal routes to CO2 emission reduction in addition to Electric Vehicles?

  • First, we should note that almost 1/3 of excess CO2 emissions arise from each of three sectors: transportation, Industrial heating, and power plants.
  • In 2022, about 10 million Electric Vehicles (EVs) were sold. These EVs prevented the equivalent of 200,000 MW of CO2 emissions (approximately ~ 36 or more Kilotons per hour) (i.e., when electric cars substitute fossil-fired cars).
  • Each car, on average, outputs 20 kW of power and costs US$50,000. So, to prevent 200,000 MW, we spend US$500 Billion or  $2,500 per kW.
  • One  MW electric process heater with a 1000°C output costs $0.3-$1 Million. To save 200,000 MW of emissions, we will need to spend only $300 -$1000 per KW for Industrial Process Heating Electrification Units (as opposed to $2500 per kW for EVs). 
  • Thus by electrifying industrial process heating in the Cement, Chemical and Metals Production, Industrial Parts Making, Food and Beverage, Ore drying, and Calcining industries, we can reduce 1/3 of the total excess CO2 emissions with only 20-40% of the expenditure required compared to EVs.
  • The calculations are approximate – we have not compared the materials that go into making EVs to the materials used for making industrial electric heaters.
  • The message is, EV’s can be considered in certain parts of the world where $50,000 cars can be sold.  However, everyone can participate by changing industrial heating to electrified methods anywhere in the world.

April 8, 2023

Climate Trivia. Did you know?

  • Anthropogenic carbon emissions cause global warming. CO2 Is at Its highest level in the atmosphere in a million years. This warming is the cause of the loss of 2 trillion tons of ice per year. Over 300 billion work hours are estimated to be lost to excessive heat annually.
  • We have already pumped enough greenhouse gases into the atmosphere to warm it by ~1.5C, but fine particles (not good for health) may have kept it around 1.1C.
  • The social cost of carbon (SCC) is the marginal costof the impacts (like asset values) caused by emitting one extra ton of carbon emissions. Emissions from burning fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas) are a major cause of the rise in global average temperature.
  • Studies calculate place costs at more than US$300 per ton of CO2. Factoring this into project recovery analyses makes the return on investment for new decarbonized equipment (equipment that is energy efficient and produces no CO2 or NOx) very attractive.
  • Electrification of Industrial heating can prevent a third of excess carbon dioxide emissions.

April 2, 2023

  • Clean chemicals like H2O,  air, and air/steam plasma can meet the decarbonization targets of several companies.
  • Typical hot steam applications include steam-heated processes to make fuels and chemicals, steam-driven turbines in electric power plants, drying surfaces above the inversion temperatures, humidification, and chemical-free disinfection and sterilization.…… read more.
  •  Typical hot air applications include drying, efficient heating and decarbonization, engine and material test stands, drying and heating in cement, steel, aluminum, food and beverage, and ammonia, i.e., heat-dominated industrial use….. read more.
  • Typical applications of hot eions are in transportation, friction-reduction, corrosion prevention, surface coloring, and machining…..read more

Did you also know that conversion to electric methods almost always saves substation energy?

March 26, 2023

The average planetary surface temperatures should get colder the farther a planet is from the Sun, but Venus is an anomaly because of its greenhouse effect.

  • Mercury 167°C
  • Venus 464°C (compare with the melting point of Zinc ~ 420°C at one atmosphere)
  • Earth 15°C
  • Mars Minus – 65°C
  • Jupiter Minus -110°C
  • Saturn Minus -140°C
  • Uranus Minus -195°C
  • Neptune Minus -200°C (the melting point of Nitrogen is – 210°C)

Source for average planetary temperatures. https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/resources/681/solar-system-temperatures/

17 March 2023

Did you know one can capture CO2 from the air and store it?   

  • Some solids and liquids can absorb CO2. As of today, direct carbon costs are prohibitively high. The range of costs varies between $250 and $600/ton CO2, depending on the chosen technology.
  • Photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide naturally. Amines, algae, zeolites, and hydroxides can capture CO2. Activated carbon can also absorb CO2. The captured carbon dioxide can be used to make valuable compounds, but the CO2 may be given off again when used!
  • Did you know the best option is to quickly change industrial heating systems to those that make zero CO2, NOx, and SO2?  That is possible by eliminating fossil fuel burning.   Megawatt electrical systems are available today at attractive prices.

Learn more about elements of project pricing.

March 11, 2023

MHI Inc. offers Clean and Lean electrical Decarbonization technologies and manufactured thermal products. Did you know? – MHI’s decarbonizing heating systems generate Zero CO2, Zero NOx, Zero SO2, Zero Mercury, and Zero Soot. The savings are enormous when compared to the cost of emitting CO2 with fuel-based equipment. Here is an example.

  • A 1.2 MW fossil fuel-fired heater could make about ~ 1 ton per hour of CO2.  The social cost of emissions can significantly impact asset values and escalate insurance premiums.
  • These social costs range from $300- $441 per hour for a 1.2 MW fossil fuel heater machine. This is expected to rise to the $1000’s/ ton with an increase in global warming. This cost is in addition to the fuel costs. wiki source.
  • The social cost is about ~$100,000 – $317,520 or more per month with a 1.2 MW combustion fossil fuel heater. No Plastic, Combustion, MQL, Energy, and Water Savings with Simplicity.

No Plastic, Combustion, MQL, Energy, and Water Savings with Simplicity.

March 4, 2023

  • We cannot create new energy.  Since the big bang all the energy and matter have always been contained in our universe.  This is called the first law of thermodynamics.
  • Emmy Noether (1882-1935) showed that symmetries in the universe give rise to mathematical conservation laws like energy conservation.
  • One of the most significant breakthroughs in energy sciences (Thermodynamics) was when James Joule (1818-1889) discovered that the various forms of energy—mechanical, electrical, chemical, and heat—are the same.  Energy in one form can be changed into another, sometimes with a penalty that changes the quality of the energy. 
  • Soon it was realized that not all heat (thermal energy exchange) could be converted to work.  This is the second law of thermodynamics.
  • Did you know that radiation and radiation energy can travel across a vacuum?  When radiation encounters mass, it can heat or apply force to that mass
  • Energy from nothing!  In a vacuum, wave-like fields constantly fluctuate, producing particles and their antimatter equivalents that fizzle in and out of existence.   Is this a possible source to harness energy?

February 25, 2023

The earth’s rotation is very rapid.  At the equator, the speed is roughly 1000 miles an hour

  • We don’t feel the speed because the rotation is very smooth, and the atmosphere rotates at the same speed
  • If you are worried that you may fly off- don’t- gravity pulls us tight against the surface of the earth
  • You will weigh measurably more at the poles than at the equator because of the difference in the speed – slow at the poles – less centrifugal force.
  • Earth’s spin is not the only motion we have in space.  Our orbital speed around the sun is about 67,000 mph.

February 19, 2023

Decarbonization Part 3.

Did you know that the challenges to capping environmental carbon levels with  vigorous decarbonization are not technical but come from  a lack of   understanding of the  urgency  to reduce CO2 emissions, unawareness of available solutions, fuzzy perceptions of electricity availability,  and a lack of financial resources  for upgrading resources ?

  1. Quick   action by all industry  and government  stakeholders is needed to overcome these barriers and move forward  to achieve  deep decarbonization. 
  2. Industrial decarbonization is the way forward for deep decarbonization. A 16MW fossil fuel generator will emit about ~6000 kg/hr of CO2.  A mid-sized car emits ~2 kg/hr of CO2 at idle.   A loss of opportunity recently occurred when a North American laboratory chose a 16 MW natural gas (fossil-fuel)  heater over an energy-efficient equivalent 11MW electric heater that was much smaller in physical size.

Did you know that excess energy can be stored and electric demand can be timed to optimize electric utilization?  Several innovative strategies are available at electric power plants and grids when the demand for electricity increases quickly.  See   Grid Energy Utilization.

February 11, 2023

  • The atmosphere over us has gotten dustier over the past 200 years.  The dust is also getting coarser.
  • Scientists estimate that about 17  T Kg of dust particles are suspended in the atmosphere.
  • Did you know that atmospheric dust particles could be cooling the planet?  But not always.  It depends on the factors like particle size, the wavelength of the radiation, and the surface  texture below the dust.
  • Researchers have found that dust interacts with the climate to enhance cooling or heating depending on the cover below the dust.
  • Clouds of dust over reflective ice/snow or deserts can increase global warming, whereas dust over oceans and dense forests can cause cooling!
  • Dust can perhaps even enable plankton activity, thus indirectly boosting the amount of carbon dioxide that oceans absorb.

Black carbon, a component of dust particulate matter, is one of the most significant contributors to global warming.   It is vital to change to electric industrial heating methods.

February 4, 2023

Decarbonization Trivia – Part 2 ( Data,  Statistics, and Tips)  Read Part 1 from last week below.

  • How much CO2 is produced in industrial operations? In 2021, the total global emission of CO2 was about 37 Gigatons (GT).  About 12 GT, or 30%, was made by industrial operations.  These are rough estimates.
  • What is the growth rate of CO2 emission? Emissions increased by over 2.0 GT from 2020 to 2021 (post-pandemic recovery).
  • What was the atmospheric content of CO2 in 2022? About 421 ppm.
  • What was it in the year 1950? About 281 ppm.
  • Is global warming tied to the CO2 increase? Yes.  With the current acceleration in the atmospheric content, it is rising rapidly.
  • Can CO2 emissions be quickly mitigated? Yes, by changing to electric heating in the industrial sectorSee details.
  • Is the technology available? Yes.  MW decarbonized heating and drying convection.  MW  decarbonized steam making.  Compact commercial 10 MW electric convective heaters and decarbonized steam generators for all global voltages by country are readily available.  Each 10 MW machine today is compact.  About twenty-five to fifty 10 MW machines working year-round (~8760 hrs. per year operation ) could be enough to start capping the emissions at the 2022 level. Contact MHI. View all  MHI products.

Tips for the best decarbonization equipment. When feasible, always select the equipment that offers the best energy efficiency, lowest pressure drops, lowest ancillary costs, the highest degree of process control electronics, and highest temperature output (as it leads to rapid productivity and efficiency) in highly compact units.  Choose stainless steel or low-corrosion enclosures and recyclable materials.

January 29, 2023

Decarbonization Trivia – Part 1.

  • What is deep decarbonization? Deep decarbonization refers to the total elimination of CO2 emissions from a process.  Decarbonization eliminates fossil fuel combustion and replaces it with electric energy devices in any industrial process.
  • About 0.8-2.2 lbs. of CO2 production can be prevented with 1 kWh (3.6 kJ) of energy use or energy conversion by electric methods instead of burning carbon-containing fuels. A 100 KW device can prevent 80 – 220 lbs. of CO2 from being made every hour when heating is electrical, i.e., not with combustion heating (fossil fuel use).
  • Industries where deep decarbonization is feasible.  Ceramic, Cement, Metal production, Aluminum primary and secondary, Steel, Food and beverage, Ore drying, Chemical, Fuels, Calcining, and any heat-treating operation.  A 10 MW device can prevent 8-22 tons of CO2 emission every hour.

Is the technology available?  Yes. Today, compact 10 MW electric convective and radiative heaters are routinely available.  About twenty-five 10 MW machines working year-round (~8760 hrs.) is enough to start capping the emissions at the 2022 level.  View all  MHI products.

January 15, 2023

As greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, Methane) trap more energy from the sun, the oceans absorb more heat, increase sea surface temperatures, and lead to rising sea levels.

  • The rising temperature of surface seawater influences global wind patterns. Changing surface winds, expansion of ocean water, acidification, heat waves, and the addition of melting Ice are responsible for rising sea levels.
  • The role of thermal expansion is important.
  • Thermal expansion refers to a fractional change in the size of a material in response to a change in temperature. Solids expand less than liquids which expand less than gases for the same temperature rise. For most materials, over small temperature ranges, these fractional changes are linear with an increase in temperature. The order of magnitude coefficient of volume expansion (isobaric) per °C for Ice is ~100 x10^-6, Water 210 x10^-6, and Air is ~3400 x10^-6.
  • Did you know about Negative Thermal Expansion (NTE) materials? Some materials contract upon heating. The most well-known is water between  0 and 4 °C. Several other materials display similar behavior – some zeolites, carbon fibers, or zirconium tungstate, which has a negative expansion beyond 750 °C!
  • A typical application of composites made of positive and negative expansion materials is the glass cooking top which makes it shatter-resistant.

January 8, 2023

Antarctica holds many scientific secrets.  A treasure trove of weird and beautiful oddities lies beneath the ice.

Did you know that in 2022, researchers reported fascinating discoveries:

  • DNA from ancient microorganisms, some of which are about 1 million years old.
  • An enormous underground river lies under several ice masses in the Antarctic region.
  • If the entire region were to melt due to climate change, it could raise global sea levels ~by 14  feet!
  • There is a local ecosystem of icefish nests (60 million of them), most likely serving as prey for Weddell seals.
  • The Weddell Sea has the most transparent water of any sea on Earth.   The clarity of the water is like distilled water.
  • In Antarctica, the average temperature in 2022 was 8.6 degrees Fahrenheit (4.8 degrees Celsius), warmer than average.
  • On the same day, the average temperature in the Arctic was 6 degrees Fahrenheit  (3.3 degrees Celsius) higher than usual.

Industrial decarbonization is a fast way of reducing CO2 emissions.

January 1, 2023

Did you know that a sea change in innovation is occurring, and not just in artificial intelligence? Responsible innovation is happening—driven by climate change. For 2023 we predict:

  • The social pressure for clean manufacturing and energy efficiency will increase substantially. Organizations will have to implement their stated vision and become purpose-driven. This means they will have to support decarbonization actively.
  • The need for high-power clean energy will cause significant changes in the way the electrical grid operates. A surge of innovation in intelligent energy use will occur. Industrial decarbonization with electricity is expected to lead the way for sustainability. Large battery storage systems will become ubiquitous.
  • The most accessible sector to decarbonize is the industrial sector, a fact that will gain immediate social concern. Typical industries that emit CO2 are general heat treaters, materials manufacturing, drying, cement, fuel, chemicals, and others. They account for 30% of global CO2 emissions.
  • These industries will begin the switch to electric and electrochemical methods to dramatically reduce CO2 emissions. The most likely scenario is the use of the Airtorch® or MightySteam® types of decarbonized technologies.
  • The transportation and cutting tools sector will look for new ways to reduce the coefficient of friction without messy lubricants.

Did you know that a sea change in innovation is occurring, and not just in artificial intelligence? 

Responsible innovation is happening—driven by climate change.  For 2023 we predict:

  • The social pressure for clean manufacturing and energy efficiency will increase substantially.  Organizations will have to implement their stated vision and become purpose-driven.  This means they will have to support decarbonization actively.

·         The need for high-power clean energy will cause significant changes in the way the electrical grid operates.  A surge of innovation in intelligent energy use will occur.  Industrial decarbonization with electricity is expected to lead the way for sustainability.   Large battery storage systems will become ubiquitous.

·         The most accessible sector to decarbonize is the industrial sector, a fact that will gain immediate social focus.  Typical industries that emit CO2 are general heat treaters,  materials manufacturing, drying, cement, fuel, chemicals, and others.  They account for 30% of global CO2 emissions.

·         These industries will switch to electric and electrochemical methods to dramatically reduce CO2 emissions.  The most likely scenario is the use of the Airtorch® or MightySteam® types of decarbonized technologies.

·        The transportation and cutting tools sector will look for new ways to reduce the coefficient of friction without messy lubricants.

December 25, 2022

Our holiday season resolution is to keep increasing the energy efficiency of our products.

When less energy can be used for the same objective, it will substantially reduce CO2 emissions. Modern light bulbs produce the same visible light intensity with much less energy. Here are some tips for industrial energy efficiency.

  1. Improved practices. There is no need to pressurize compressors and bleed them every day.   Pressurization leads to substantial energy demand.  If using high-volume airflows, ensure that the pressure drop is the least.
  2. Prefer electric devices over combustion  (fossil-fuel heated)  devices. Opt for modern electric machines; they use less energy for the same objective than a machine with a combustion source.   An 11MW electric  Airtorch® for the same heating objective can replace a 16MW convective gas heater.  Or use an electric  instant steam generator instead of a conventional boiler.  Or implement methods to conserve the  quality of energy. 
  3. Upgrade equipment. Replace old furnaces and devices with modern ones that offer the most modern emissivity heaters, crisp controls, safe insulation, ergonomics, and  compactness.  Use higher temperatures for  processing for the same objective to glean profits from higher productivity.
  4. Clean smartly. Cleaning chemicals pack a lot of energy, but it comes from somewhere!  Please keep it clean!  without adding new chemicals or contaminantsSave energy with high-temperature steam.

December 18, 2022

We all know that a lever or pulley affords mechanical advantage for force multiplication.

Mechanical advantage is a consequence of the first law of thermodynamics that stipulates that energy is a conserved quantity. Consequently, a small force moved over a distance can be translated to overcome a larger force moved over a smaller distance. Any friction in the system reduces the mechanical advantage.

Did you know that another form of mechanical advantage can be obtained from the second law of thermodynamics? The second law of thermodynamics shows that when the temperature difference between a heat source and sink is high, conversion efficiency to work also increases. Therefore, the hotter the jet engine can operate, the better the efficiency (more workability). More workability leads to a higher advantage – a form of force multiplier with higher temperatures. Friction losses reduce efficiency.

Did you know that friction loss that generates entropy is important for the postulate of maximum entropy production rate that allows specific patterns to form? Patterns can be used to improve energy efficiency in multivariate systems by enhancing a vital property. For example, birds use formation-flying over long migratory distances to conserve energy and benefit from a mechanical advantage gleaned from power optimization during the flight.

December 9, 2022

Did you know about clean chemicals like H2O,  air, and air/steam plasma?  These are particularly useful in their heated state for industrial decarbonization, i.e., in the form of steam, hot air, and eions.

  • Typical applications for hot steam are steam-heated processes to make fuels and chemicals, steam-driven turbines in electric power plants, drying surfaces above the immersion temperatures, and chemical-free disinfection and sterilization.…… read more.
  • Typical applications for hot air are in decarbonization, engine and material test stands, drying and heating in cement, steel, aluminum, food and beverage, and ammonia, i.e., heating-dominated industry….. read more.
  • Typical applications of hot eions are in transportation, friction-reduction, corrosion prevention, surface coloring, and machining…..read more

Did you also know that conversion to electric methods almost always saves substation energy?

December 4, 2022

Did you know? Modern equipment like the Airtorch® and the OAB® have amazingly brought unexpected 21st-century technical benefits beyond energy efficiency. For example;

  • The wasted pressure energy typically lost in fossil fuel heat exchangers is no longer a concern when replaced by the Electric Airtorch®.  Or that,
  • Psat and Tstat restrictions that had prevented energy savings in steam boilers are no longer a concern in steam generation with the MightySteam® devices.

The words deep-decarbonization refer to all measures through which a business sector reduces its carbon footprint by eliminating greenhouse gas emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). The combustion (burning) of fossil fuels like natural gas and coal produces 83 percent of global CO2 emissions. Avoiding flame and combustion heating will accelerate decarbonization (required for improving climate change issues). All industrial sectors are seeking to decarbonize through energy efficiency from electrification. Some young US companies (like MHI Inc.) have overcome many technical hurdles preventing industrial decarbonization in the steel, cement,  heat treating, and chemicals sectors which are the top four emitting industrial sectors.

The challenges for Industrial decarbonization are:

November 28, 2022

Adhesion and cohesion are two basic forces involved in sticking one thing to another.  Adhesion is a force that causes different things to stick together, while cohesion is the force that causes similar things to stick together.

When two materials are brought into contact, the surface molecules interact, giving rise to attractive forces that may be physical, chemical, or electrostatic (corresponding to adsorption, covalent bonding, or van der Waals forces, respectively). These are adhesive forces that are different between low and high-temperature joining.

  • Low-Temperature Stickiness techniques:  Glues and sticky tapes contain large molecules that grab onto surfaces for joining low-temperature use materials (like paper or plastic).  Natural glues contain large molecules of proteins and sugar. Synthetic glues contain long chains of polymers.  Glues and adhesives have low viscosity, which makes them flow onto and into a surface. Glues are hardened (rigidized)  by drying or bulk cohesive reactions, whereas sticky tape has many molecules that enter and wrap around ridges and pores of the base solid to be joined. There is generally no chemical reaction between the joining surfaces and the glue.  Such adhesion works best when the materials combined have pores, crevices, or uneven surfaces.  
  • High-Temperature Stickiness techniques:  The joining of ceramic and metallic materials requires high-temperature processes like soldering, welding, brazing, or solid-state diffusion joining.  Adhesion for high-temperature joining requires a reaction with the solid surfaces. Unlike glues, the interfaces must adhere by atomic scale bonding caused by melting and solidification or high-temperature diffusion of atoms.

Did you know that electrical heating methods are preferable to fossil-fuel heating methods for joining?  They offer more control and no climate pollution.

November 20, 2022

  • All batteries produce energy through electrochemical reactions involving an anode, cathode, and electrolyte. With use, a battery becomes ‘spent” because of a polarizing chemical or physical condition that effectively depletes its usefulness.
  • The difference between rechargeable and non-rechargeable is that the chemical reaction is readily reversible (mostly) for a rechargeable battery.
  • A battery’s capacity is expressed in Ampere-hours (Ah). This number indicates the period that it can provide a given current. The greater the Ah, the longer the battery will operate before becoming unusable or needing a recharge.
  • Under proper conditions, almost all batteries can be recharged with a lot of care.
  • So why aren’t all batteries sold as rechargeables? It all comes down to materials. Batteries can get hot during charging. The charging process can cause dangerous thermal (heat-producing) reactions. For the electrolyte part, all batteries use a liquid or gel fluid. This creates a danger that the battery could leak the electrolyte under stressful recharging conditions.
  • The typical ‘non-rechargeable’ battery contains zinc powder (anode), manganese oxide (cathode), and potassium hydroxide (electrolyte). Such batteries are called alkaline batteries (as opposed to acidic car batteries). Car batteries (rechargeable) can contain corrosive sulfuric acid – not an option for watch and phone batteries.
  • Rechargeable batteries are made with carbon (anode), lithium cobalt oxide (cathode), and lithium-ion salt(s) in an organic solvent (electrolyte). A lithium battery can charge and discharge quickly for many cycles without becoming spent.
  • Did you know – even rechargeable batteries have a finite life? Recharging does not entirely reverse the passivating build-up on an electrode (that forms during use). Over time and many cycles of use and recharging, the electrodes become ever more inaccessible, thus degrading their ability to be a  part of the electrochemical reaction needed for the battery to operate correctly.

November 12, 2022

  • Clean industrial manufacturing methods can reduce CO2 emissions dramatically.  Free calculator.
  • A report by the United Nations concluded that average global temperatures are on track to warm by 2.1°C to 2.9°C by the year 2100.  As a result, the world can expect a dramatic rise in chaotic, extreme weather events.
  • The possibility of extreme weather events related to global temperature rise should make us reevaluate the basis of industrial project costing.
  • Many forms of clean energy are cheaper than many fossil fuels that cause CO2 and other toxic emissions.  The social cost of CO2 production varies from  US$51 (Federal Estimate) to about $185 per ton of CO2 (Independent Estimate Click here).
  • Reducing fossil-fuel use (i.e., oil or natural gas heating) in the industrial sector makes it possible to improve the payback quickly from all new projects significantly.

November 6, 022

  • Why is a mirror reflective? A mirror is essentially glass coated with a thin film of metal, such as silver. The conduction electrons are the source of electrical conductivity in silver. When light attempts to penetrate metal, they oscillate in a manner that cancels the electric field of light and prohibits light from entering beyond a few atomic layers. The smoothness of a mirror’s glass and metal coating ensures that this surface reflection is specular, i.e., the angles of incidence and reflection of light are the same. On the other hand, a sheet of paper is neither conductive nor polished for specular reflection and thus is not reflective.
  • Butterfly wings have tiny scales covered with microscopic ridges and other structures. These play with light waves to create brilliant purple/blues and speckles of colors. Instead of a coloring chemical, the texture establishes the concentration of wavelengths.  Click here for more information.
  • What is Deburr? A change of texture at the nanoscale is called nanoscale deburring. Deburring in seconds for metallic alloys is possible  with the Cascade e-Ion. How does the  Cascade e-ion change the surface roughness?  Does it impact the color of the surface?    Does it affect friction?
  • Did you know that reducing friction in the transportation sector is an excellent way of reducing energy use and enhancing the retained quality of energy?  Reducing energy use for an objective  is a way to impact climate change.

October 30, 2022

Using fossil energy like fuel oil, gasoline, or natural gas for heating creates a considerable amount of CO2.

Kilograms of CO2 per million KJ (kilojoules)   (Source)
Natural Gas (the main component is methane) 50.4
Jet Fuel 68.8
Bituminous (coal) 88.8
Diesel and Home Heating Fuel (Distillate Fuel Oil) 59.9
Gasoline and Ethanol Blends 64.1
  • On average, one ton of CO2 requires fossil fuel to burn and produce heat of approximately 20 million KJ.
  • One industrial process heater (15MW) could use 245 Billion BTU for a year. That is a lot of CO2 production – about 12,000 tons or more of CO2 from one large-industrial dryer yearly!
  • The social (environmental) cost of producing/emitting CO2 gas varies from US $51 per ton (Federal Estimate) to about $185 per ton (other estimates)  (Source)
  • Thus the social cost of using a carbon-containing combustible gas could add anywhere from  25% to 100% in price  to combustion fossil fuel energy.
  • Did you know that  Modern Electric Heating  methods  Eliminate CO2 Production/emission? 
  • So why not go electric?  Electric heating is also often more efficient for energy use. An excellent place to start is  industrial decarbonization.

October 23, 2022

Fruit, vegetables, and climate changeDid you know?

  • Water makes up about 60% of the body’s weight. Several fruits and vegetables contain a lot of fiber. Keeping the body hydrated with fruit and leafy vegetables helps replenish sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, and vitamin levels.
  • Melons such as cantaloupe and watermelon have some of the highest water content, at more than 90 percent. Tomatoes, at 94%, are the most hydrating.
  • In fruits and vegetables, colors come from just four groups of pigments: Chlorophyll (green), Carotenoids (yellow, red, orange), Flavonoids  (red, blue, purple), and Betalains (red, yellow, purple). Each color is associated with a positive specific impact on body organs.
  • Rapid climate change is already negatively impacting the water content and colors of fruits and vegetables.
    • In addition to water stress, a change in the fungi and microbe population affects crop productivity and yield. Increased temperatures can have a positive or negative on specific crops depending on location. However, high temperatures and excess direct sunlight can easily cause sunburn in developing fruits and vegetables

This calls for action- electrify industrial heating for rapid CO2 reduction. (Industrial heating today impacts ~30% of preventable CO2 emissions).  Click here for more information.

October 16, 2022

The color of the planets

Planet surfaces or atmospheres reflect and absorb sunlight.

  • The surface of Mercury is thought to be made up of igneous silicate rocks and dust.  Mercury has a dark gray, rocky surface with a thick layer of dust.
  • Venus is blanketed with a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere and sulphuric acid clouds that give it a light yellowish appearance.
  • Earth shows its blue oceans, white clouds, and green and brownish land.
  • Mars, covered with fine iron oxide, is red-orange.
  • Jupiter is a giant gas planet with an outer atmosphere, mostly hydrogen and helium, with small amounts of water droplets, ice crystals, ammonia crystals, and other elements.  Clouds of these elements make shades of white, orange, brown, and red.
  • Saturn is also a giant gas planet with an outer atmosphere of mostly hydrogen and helium.  Its atmosphere has traces of ammonia, phosphine, water vapor, and hydrocarbons giving it a yellowish-brown color.
  • Uranus is a gas planet with methane gas mixed in with its mainly hydrogen and helium atmosphere.  This methane gas gives Uranus a greenish-blue hue.
  • Neptune also has some methane gas in its mostly hydrogen and helium atmosphere, giving it a bluish color.

Did you know plasmized gas has several tell-tale colors depending on the gas?

October 9, 2022

  • What is fire? If we think of fire as a flame – flames consist primarily of carbon dioxide, water vapor, oxygen, and nitrogen.
  • Most of the fire’s energy output is in the form of heat produced when a material is ignited and combined with oxygen, resulting in combustion.
  • If hot enough, the gases may become ionized to produce plasma.
  • Carbon dioxide is responsible for about two-thirds  of all human-produced greenhouse gases.
  • Did you know you can reduce the amount of global CO2 emissions by industrial decarbonization  using electric methods to heat or make steam?

October 2,2022

Did you know that we can stabilize global temperatures by becoming more aggressive about industrial energy use? To stabilize the earth’s temperature, we must first stabilize the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. 

Burning carbonaceous fuels produces COgas, a greenhouse gas because it absorbs and emits infrared radiation.  Its buildup in the atmosphere correlates well with sea level rise and a steady rise in the earth’s average surface temperature.

Almost a third of the global CO2 emissions are from industrial combustion heating.  These can be quickly reduced to zero CO2 and NOx emissions if industrial heating uses energy-efficient electric methods instead of combustion.  There is a cost of changeover always, but the returns are more than attractive.

Here are methods that we can quickly employ:

September 25, 2022

Energy-saving steps;

  1. If lesser energy can be used for the same objective, it will substantially reduce CO2 emissions. Modern light generators (bulbs) produce the same visible light intensity with much less energy.
  2. Improved practices. There is no need to pressurize compressors and bleed them every day.   Pressurization leads to substantial energy demand.  If using high-volume airflows, ensure that the pressure drop is the least.
  3. Prefer electric devices over combustion devices. Opt for modern electric machines; they probably use less energy for the same objective than a machine with a combustion source.   For example, we have shown that a 16MW gas heater can be replaced by an 11MW electric Airtorch® for the same heating objective.  Or use an electric instant steam generator instead of a conventional boiler.  Or implement methods to conserve the quality of energy. 
  4. Did you know that saving 5MW power in a device for the same objective saves well over US$3.5 Million for the year in the cost of electric energy? More resources
  5. Upgrade equipment. Replace old furnaces and devices with modern ones that offer the most modern emissivity heaters, crisp controls, safe insulation, ergonomics, and Use higher temperatures for processing for the same objective to glean profits from higher productivity.  
  6. Clean smartly. Cleaning chemicals pack a lot of energy, but it comes from somewhere! Please keep it clean! without adding new chemicals or contaminantsSave energy with high-temperature steam.

September 18, 2022

  1. Did you know that it is essential to decarbonize?
  2. World Economic Forums suggests that full decarbonization of our energy systems is the only solution to climate stabilization.
  3. We need to decarbonize faster as we may be off our target temperature rise goals.- tips on choosing equipment for decarbonization.

September 11, 2022

Did you know decarbonized clean energy can save money?

  • Breakthrough examples of decarbonization equipment – here

September 4, 2022

Did you know there are key differences between ancient furnaces and modern furnaces? Two major differences.

  • Modern furnaces are electrically heated (no combustion) – so they reach high temperatures exceeding 1700°C (3092°F). Electric heating allows for process control, improved process productivity, and therefore much higher efficiencies.
  • The second is the roof span. Earlier, only fire bricks were available and roof shapes and spans of these furnaces were constrained by arches and chimneys. Today, a host of new composites are used in furnace construction. Newly available materials like NanoFractalAlumina™ allow for very wide roof spans. When coupled with modern roof hanger designs, the roofs can be made to span several feet in width. Examples are seen in  High Quality, High-Temperature High-Efficiency Furnaces – MHI-INC (mhi-inc.com)

August 28, 2022

Did you know it could be much less expensive to use clean methods?

  • A decarbonized modern economy has low greenhouse gas emissions, mainly from its industrial sector.
  • Energy decarbonization efforts in a nation involve changing the energy conversion/use system to prevent carbon emissions from entering the atmosphere.
  • Avoid all carbonaceous combustion- change to electrical or electrochemical methods to achieve a decarbonization goal.
  • It works well in two instances, namely, (i) the electrical energy is made with clean methods, or (ii) when electrically driven efficiency is vastly better than the combustion efficiency that it replaces, for example, in the steam sector.
  • Some examples of decarbonization machinery – here

August 21, 2022

The use of clean energy saves money. Here are some examples:

August 14, 2022

  • Scientifically created antibiotic drugs and anti-bacterial cleaners have saved millions of lives. Penicillin alone may have saved 80 – 200 million lives. New anti-viral drugs have had a tremendous impact.
  • However, it is becoming increasingly important to clean without chemicals. Over time, bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics. We now live in an era of superbugs.
  • There are many ways to keep things  clean without chemical contamination, like novel   methods with  clean, instant steam above the inversion temperature
  • Did you know clean, dry, high temperature (over 250°C) steam is available to sanitize and sterilize objects? Anti-microbial surfaces like  Textured Inorganic Surfaces are another way to a permanently cleaner environment.

August 7, 2022

  • Did you know? Almost 24%-28% of total CO2 emissions are from industrial heating devices. The amount is comparable to the emissions from transportation (27%) and electricity generation (25%).
  • Industrial emissions can be addressed more quickly than the other sectors by converting to modern electric methods and reducing surface friction.
  • A 1% global GDP investment could reduce global CO2 emissions from industrial processes by 6 to 8.5% by 2030 (that’s good! And cost-effective).   Electric heaters offer much higher energy efficiency and no greenhouse gas emissions.

       Some examples where quick conversion to electric is possible:

  • Large industrial dryers and test beds can make a lot of CO2. Industrial combustion heaters could be as large as 30 MW in size. These can emit 1 to 2.5 metric tons of CO2 in just an hour (that’s a lot!).  Change to Airtorch® heaters.
  • Comfort industry duct-heaters. Modern electric duct heaters. Typically, a 120 KW combustion style bay heater makes about ~1000lbs. CO2 during an eight-hour workday.
  • Efficient Electric Steam Generators. Modern MightSteam®

July 31, 2022

  • Electrical current is the flow of electrons in a conductor.
  • AC (alternating current) and DC (direct current) are different currents used to conduct electrical energy. DC currents flow in one direction, whereas AC goes back and forth at 60 cycles/second (60Hz) in the US.
  • AC is less expensive and easier to generate than DC. Although AC use is more common, DC is also used in significant quantities, e.g., for charging batteries and aluminum smelting.
  • The main advantage of AC over DC is that AC voltages are easily transformed to higher or lower voltages. High voltages are critical for low transmission losses. At the same time, it isn’t easy to do that with DC voltages.
  • AC is produced at 2.3 to 30 kilovolts (kV), transmitted at 115 to 765 kV, and distributed at 15 to 34.5 kV. Most transmission lines are high-voltage three-phase alternating current (AC), although single-phase AC is used in railway electrification systems.
  • Finally, at the point of use, the energy is transformed to low voltage 110V,  240V or 480V.
  • The transmission of AC is cheaper than the production of AC.  Devices that use electricity are far more efficient than devices that use combustion, e.g., the Airtorch®  or MightySteam.

July 24, 2022

  • Did you know that MightySteam® and Airtorch® products make an excellent contribution towards zero emission devices?
  • Good News: The total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from industry, including electricity, have declined by 22% since 1990. Source https://www.epa.gov/.  The key drivers were improved energy efficiency from new technologies, fuel switching to electric and low carbon fuels, recycling, and better human awareness.
  • However, including both direct emissions and indirect emissions associated with electricity use, industry’s share of the total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions is still about 27%-30%, making it the largest contributor of greenhouse gases of any sector.

July 17, 2022

  • Poor energy efficiencies lead to unusual climate variations that lead to conditions under which economies are less productive.
  • Productivity growth is a key driver of economic growth that determines the returns on many financial assets.
  • A 1% global GDP investment could reduce global CO2 emissions from energy production and industrial processes by 6 to 8.5% by 2030.  Source: Front. Climate 07 June 2022.
  • Implementing industrial clean technologies is easily possible with small investments that eliminate CO2 production at sites.  There are many leading methods for drying,  preheating, process engineering, and steam production.

July 10, 2022

Did you know?

  • Hard water is a nuisance in steam-production boilers, but modern steam generators can assess and work with the situation a lot better.
  • Water softening is the process of the removal of calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal cations from water.
  • Softening with ion exchange resins introduces sodium. Softening by reverse osmosis (RO) does not introduce new ions.
  • Hard water is not water that is necessarily contaminated.  It is quite OK to drink (mineral water) – mineral water could be tastier than soft water.
  • Quick test: If the water does not foam easily with a little bit of soap, it probably is hard water.
  • Soft water requires less soap for the same cleaning effort as the soap is not used up in bonding with calcium ions.
  • Rainwater when collected after a downpour is soft water.  After it flows down creeks it collects minerals and becomes hard.

July 3, 2022

Did you know we have enough clean energy available?

  • The sun is expected to survive for 5-8 billion years more, however, in about 4-6 billion years it is expected to begin dulling.
  • Before dulling it will get hotter (and brighter) albeit slowly.  It will get hot enough to make life impossible on earth.  But that is several billion years away.
  • It was about 30% dimmer when it formed i.e., about 4.5 billion years back, and will become about 66% brighter in a billion and half years from now.
  • The total energy available from the Sun during its lifetime is roughly about 10^26 exajoules (EJ), (Exa = 10^18) at an average power dissipation rate of about 10^23 kilowatts (kW).  This calculation uses the known present power dissipation rate and multiplies it by the estimated life of the sun.  It is an approximate number. What is a Joule? What is a Watt?
  • On earth, we use about 600 exajoules per year.  This tells us that our Sun has plenty of energy left to transfer to earth over the next billions of years.
  • However, we do need to innovate and reduce CO2 and methane emissions now.  We should eliminate combustion heating and become more electrically efficient so that we use energy without triggering existential climate problems. [www.mhi-inc.com]View industrial electrical products here.
  • Did you know that the sun after it dulls, will make heat with a chemical process, not like the present fission (nuclear) nuclear process – yes there could be CO2 production at that time in the Sun,  i.e., when carbon and oxygen elements start forming?

June 25, 2022

Almost 24% of the total CO2 emission is from industrial heating devices. (https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/sources-greenhouse-gas-emissions).   This is almost the same amount of CO2 emission as from the transportation sector (27%), and the electricity generation sector (25%).

The industrial heating sector emissions can be very rapidly addressed by converting to electric methods.  Electric heaters offer much higher energy efficiency and no greenhouse gas emissions compared to traditional gas combustion heaters.  See electric heaters here.

Some examples where quick conversion to electric is possible are:

  • Comfort industry duct-heaters. Typically, a 120 KW combustion style bay heater makes about ~1000lbs., of CO2 during an eight-hour workday. Modern electric duct heaters.
  • Industrial combustion heaters could be 30 MW in size.  In just our hour, these can emit 1 to 2.5 metric tons of CO2.  These heaters can be converted to the Airtorch® heaters.
  • Efficient Electric Steam Generators.

June 19, 2022

  • Energy can be of many kinds: kinetic energy, chemical energy, electrostatic energy, electrodynamical energy, and thermal energy are some of the common types of energy.
  • Both quantity and quality are associated with energy. The quality of energy is defined by the relative ease with which the energy transforms to the type of energy that we can employ for an objective – a narrower definition is the fraction of the energy which can be used for useful work.  By this definition, disordered energy is low-quality energy.
  • More high-temperature thermal energy can be converted to work compared to low-temperature energy. Therefore, the higher the temperature, the higher the quality of the energy.  See www.mhi-inc.com.
  • When we “store” energy, we call it potential energy. Typically, we associate potential energy with gravitational potential energy.  But there can be other types of potentially usable stored energy e.g., batteries store chemical energy, or solar ponds store potentially usable thermal energy. A compass needle not aligned with the north and south poles has high magnetic potential energy.

June 12, 2022

June 5, 2022

If climate and greenhouse gases are of concern, it is important to improve the energy efficiency of a process regardless of ‘going’ electric.  This is because most of the electricity is still produced by combustion processes.  Here are some general tips:

  • Choose processes where you can use the power on demand without having to idle.
  • Choose processes where the productivity is high.  Sometimes a higher temperature process is better for energy efficiency, compared to a slower and lower temperature process. Even  birds group together to optimize efficiency, research suggests.
  • Follow conservation principles like recycling, for conserving energy, but again be careful that the energy expended for recycling is not more than what is recovered.
  • An interesting innovation is in instant high-temperature energy-efficient  steam generators. These are products that combine new water technology and materials technology for making instant chemical quality, antimicrobial, and utility steam.
  • Give yourself a target not to use more energy this year than last year for the same production goals.  Yes, it would help if the energy-producing companies could also hold their pricing!

May 29, 2022

Did you know?

  • Electric Products are Generally Much More Efficient than Combustion Products.  Sometimes 40% more efficient because of electronic controllability options.
  • All Combustion Products make CO2 and some Methane.  Both greenhouse gases.  Combustion products also include harmful nitrous oxides.
  • Approximately 1KWh of Electric that replaces 1 KWhr of Combustion saves 0.8-2lbs. of CO2 being made. (https://www.eia.gov/). This can be saved at the product-of-use site or at the energy production site.
  • The Social cost of CO2 emissions is estimated to be ~$50/ton of CO2 emitted (https://edf.org ).  One ton of CO2 approximately equates to 1000 KWh, of combustion-energy use.
  • 1000 KWh (1000 units in the electric bill which corresponds approximately to ~$850) is the average energy used in combination by 50 US households every day.
  • Medium scale industrial, and commercial (large warehouses) often use over 1000KWh or more energy every 8-hr shift.  The more efficient ones use electricity, and the less efficient ones use gas-burning products.
  • Typically, electric cars use 30KWh of energy for 100 miles driven.  Similar gasoline cars use 40KWh for 100 miles.  Click here for industrial savings by an Airtorch® over Gas Combustion methods for heating.
  • Why should we conserve the quality of energy?  Click here.

May21, 2022

Did you know about supercritical fluids and superheated gases?

  • Although we recognize distinct phases of matter like solids, liquids, and gases, supercritical states are also noted above a critical temperature and pressure.  This material is both gas and liquid, but neither gas nor liquid nor a mixture.   A supercritical fluid displays properties between a gas and a liquid.  Both highly superheated steam and supercritical steam have interesting usable properties.
  • Superheated and Supercritical steam are used for generating power.  Superheated steam can be at any pressure if it is above the boiling point at that pressure. Supercritical steam forms beyond the critical point (>647.096K, and >22.064 MPa). At the critical point, there are about ~30% free monomeric H2O molecules. Supercritical water has very low surface tension with its gas or liquid phase, therefore no interfaces exist that can delineate the liquid/gas interface. Above 647.096K, supercritical steam cannot be liquefied by increasing the pressure.
  • Other gases are also used in their supercritical state.  Supercritical CO2 (above 304.13 K, and 7.38 MPa) is used to decaffeinate coffee. Its viscosity and diffusivity are like those of a gas, so it penetrates the beans easily. However its density is like that of a liquid.  It happens also binds well to caffeine (this property is much more important than its supercritical fluid properties). Supercritical CO2 is also used in dry cleaning.

May 15, 2022

Energy-saving steps. Did you know small steps can make a large difference in the electricity bill? (An example of one company saving $3.5 Million is discussed).

  1. Education:  If lesser energy can be used for the same objective, it goes a long way in reducing CO2 emissions. Modern light generators (bulbs) produce the same visible light intensity with a lot less energy.  Award prizes for energy savings.
  2. Improved practices.  There is no need to pressurize compressors and bleed them every day.   Pressurization leads to substantial energy demand.  If using high-volume airflows, ensure that the pressure drop is the least.
  3. Prefer electric devices to combustion devices.  This may be non-intuitive because burning gas for creating heat costs less than paying for electricity.  However, if the electric device is modern, it probably uses less energy for the same objective compared to a combustion source.   For example, we have shown that a 16MW gas heater can be easily replaced by an 11MW electric Airtorch® for the same heating objective.  Or use an electric instant steam generator instead of a conventional boiler.  More resources here.  Or just search for how to conserve the quality of energy.  Did you know that a saving of 5MW for a year at the rate of $0.09/KWh is a saving of well over US$3.5 Million?
  4. Upgrade equipment.  Use higher temperatures for processing for the same objective to glean the profits from faster productivity.  Replace old furnaces and devices with modern ones that offer the most modern emissivity heaters, crisp controls, safe insulation, ergonomics, and are compact. 
  5. Keep it clean without adding new chemicals or contaminants.  Cleaning chemicals pack a lot of energy, but it came from somewhere!
  6. Think holistically about energy.  Conserve the quality of your own energy.  When your energy company consistently sends you a faulty invoice, explain to them how much energy and time, they have wasted for you to get it corrected. More here.

May 8, 2022

About Energy Conservation and Degredation

  • The first law of thermodynamics is undisputed. Energy is neither created nor destroyed.  This is best understood as a consequence of Emmy Noether’s law.
  • So why cannot we use the energy,  recycle and capture the wasted energy to create close to 100% efficiencies?  This answer is provided by the second law of thermodynamics.
  • Did you know? When we employ energy, for any objective, we degrade it.  Although the total amount is conserved, the quality of energy is degraded.
  • However, all is not lost – the loss of energy potential can be the cause for efficient self-organization.
  • More about characteristics of energy https://mhi-inc.com/energy-savings-why-should-we-be-concerned-with-energy-quality-conservation/

May 1 2022

  • The study of flames and fire is captivating.  Fire is a primitive chemical reaction with intense-light emissions from a mixture of rapidly reacting gases.  Typically, one of the reacting gases is air or oxygen. Fire is typically luminous with intense heat production.
  • The patterns of convection and luminosity in any controlled fire are often beautiful to observe.
  • When the gases heat, they rise, giving fire the familiar teardrop shape.  In microgravity, the teardrop shape will be replaced by a spherical shape.
  • Did you know that on Mars, where the atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide, the fuel and oxidizer in a matchhead would cause the tip to burn, but will quickly extinguish because of lack of oxygen?
  • For every 1 kWh of energy made or converted by electric methods, instead of burning carbon-containing fuels, one avoids the production of between 0.8 – 2lbs of CO2.
  • Overall, a much cleaner operation is experienced with electric heating systems.

April 24, 2022

Comparing Electric to Combusting Heating.  Did you know?

  1. Sustainability:  For every 1 kWh of energy made or converted by electric methods instead of burning carbon-containing fuel, one prevents the production of between 0.8-2lbs of CO2.  Overall, a much cleaner operation is experienced with electric systems.
  2. Process Control:   Electrical systems are easier to control in a precise manner compared to gas heaters.  This leads to better process outcomes, better energy efficiency, and other types of optimizations.
  3. In Boilers:   Electric steam generators can be turned on and off, unlike gas boilers.  This often cuts the energy use in half for the same outcome when no idling is required.  Electric steam generators can permit high temperatures, unlike combustion boilers.  https://mhi-inc.com/when-you-need-superheated-steam
  4. Process Gas:    Electric heaters generally allow for extremely low pressure drops, providing savings in the energy and capital equipment needed to pressurize gases.   https://mhi-inc.com/electric-airtorch-process-gas-heaters.
  5. Efficiency of Work.   Electric motors convert ~90% of the electrical energy into work compared to less than 40% for combustion engines.

Comparing Gas and Electric Heating Panels  Basics of Radiation Power Transfer – MHI-INC

April 17, 2022

Did you know there are various technologies in use for retaining heat efficiently?  Yes, there are materials that can absorb heat without getting hot.

  • All materials can do that when they change phase i.e., for example, when a substance transforms from solid to liquid with heating.
  • At the phase change temperature (for a fixed pressure and composition)  the material remains at a fixed temperature and the absorbed heat just changes the fraction of liquid as more heat energy is added.
  • Various waxes can do that too and act as thermal insulators.
  • Glycol and water mixed with a cellulose agent are used to keep food at a fixed temperature.  Cold packs can absorb heat but stay at a fixed temperature.

Heat is also retained by creating solute gradients.  Heat retention is possible in solar ponds by preventing heat loss by evaporation with such solute gradients that prevent hot water exposure to air.

April 9, 2022

You may know:

  • High-temperature steam is an ideal sanitizing agent. It is allowed for food contact surfaces, even for high bio loads, presents very low toxicity, and is rapidly effective against yeasts, molds, fungi, and viruses.

But did you know?

  • that good high-temperature steam leaves no wet spots or stains, unlike low-temperature steam or sanitizing chemicals?  Click for more information.

Published reports:

April 2, 2020

Hydrogen use is one way of enabling net-zero harmful emissions during energy use.

Did you know there are several ways of making hydrogen?  Did you also know that hot hydrogen can reduce iron ore?  Several new methods also incorporate carbon capture or the creation of useful carbon products such as carbon nitrides.

Four of the major methods receiving attention are:

  1. Methane Reforming of Fossil Fuels. https://mhi-inc.com/airtorch-applications/
  2. Steam-Methane Reforming. https://mhi-inc.com/steam-applications/
  3. Water-splitting by Electrolysis. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrolysis_of_water
  4. Decomposition of Methane during High-temperature Pyrolysis. https://mhi-inc.com/steam-applications/

Often, nano-scale catalysts like the Quasi-R® are employed during hydrogen production.

March 27, 2022 

Energy  is measured in Joules or BTU.  1 Joule =0.00095 BTU.  Energy is also measured in KWh.  1 kWh = 3.6 × 106 joule.  The price of electrical energy is ~9US¢ per KWh.  Therefore 1 KJ of electric energy costs 0.0025 US¢.  A matchstick produces 1KJ.  It is enough to light a self-sustaining candle flame, but not much more.

  • Power  is the amount of energy that is converted in one unit of time (e.g., in a second).  Almost all devices are rated by their power. Power multiplied by the time the power is employed is the energy used. A more powerful device will be able to convert the same amount of energy faster (speedier) than a less powerful device.  Power is the rate at which you can do something, e.g., higher power can make an automobile accelerate faster, make a reaction go faster, and so on.   Watt  (W) is a unit of power.    1 J/s (Joule per second) = 1 W (Watt)  .
  • A device rated for 1KW will produce or convert 3600 KJ of energy in an hour (~9US¢).  This is enough energy to not only boil one Kg of water but also to raise its temperature almost to 800C.
  • As the Watt is a small unit, the power of a device is rated in kW  (Kilowatts) or BTU/hr.   1KW = 3414 BTU/hr.    One Million BTU/hr. = 293.07 KW
  • Did you know Microheaters(typically 30W – 1KW) are made in spiral, linear, or even as 3D heater shapes for additive manufacturing purposes?   https://mhi-inc.com/microheaters-fibheats-and-holders/

March 20, 2022

Sound energy travels in waves. A sound wave is categorized by wave frequency and amplitude.

We measure sound intensity (also referred to as sound power or sound pressure)  in units called decibels.  This is a relative scale.  Decibels (dB) are named in honor of Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor of the telephone.  This scale is Logarithmic;  the difference between 10 decibels and 11 decibels is 10x the sound power just like the Richter scale for measuring the intensity of earthquakes.  The Amplitude  measures the force of the wave.  Decibels are dimensionless.   80dB is a high traffic sound.  To measure decibels, one can download a mobile decibel-reading app.

Did you know dBW or decibel-watt is a unit of power in decibel scale that is used in engineering calculations?  This too is a relative scale referenced to 1 watt (W)?  The power in decibel-watts (P(dBW)) is equal to 10 base.  Sound energy is also measured in KW of the log power in watts (P(W)).  This is a different scale than the dB scale.   0 dBW corresponds to 1W.  50 dBW is equal to 100KW.

March 13, 2022

Did you know combustion gases can be pollutants? What are they? What are the solutions?

  • Typically, gases like Carbon Monoxide(CO) have toxicity associated with them.  This is different from Carbon Dioxide (CO2) which is a greenhouse gas that can cause both long-term and short-term discomfort.   Both gases are the by-products of the combustion of natural gas.
  • Even the continued operation of a kitchen gas range (producing 800 ppm in a sealed- house without extra ventilation) can cause carbon monoxide levels to rise quickly to unacceptable levels. The EPA standard is about 9 ppm in the room.  More about the toxicity of combustion gases.

Did you know?  1 KWh of energy produced by combustion can produce 0.8 to 2 lbs of CO2,  Home cooking gas ranges are typically equipped with 2 to 4KW burners.  So, in one hour of cooking, about 2 – 4 KWh of energy (heat) is produced/used with a corresponding emission of 1.6 to 8lbs., of CO2 during that one hour of cooking with a flame.   Did you know (shipping/dock) bay heaters can produce a considerable amount of CO2 per hour?  Typically, a 100 KW combustion style bay heater makes about ~100lbs., of CO2 in one hour.

Solutions: Go Electric.    https://mhi-inc.com/simplicity-energy-efficiency-improvements/

March 6, 2022

  1. Silica glass contains silicon and oxygen atoms locked as a network of short-range order bonds in an amorphous but solid-state, which makes it transparent.
  2. Glass lacks toughness i.e., the ability to resist crack propagation. Glass fractures easily.
  3. several methods are used for making transparent silica glass resistant to fracture.
  4. Glass can be bent and tempered, or it can be laminated.
  5. Laminated glass is made by bonding one or two layers of glass with a layer of resin, like commonly polyvinyl butyral (PVB). This interlayer holds the glass layers together, prevents crack propagation,  thus increasing the toughness.
  6. For tempering,  flat glass is first heated to over 625 °C.  It will look red hot. Then it is bent to its radius over a mold. This bent glass is then tempered by careful cooling.  All this is done in a furnace or with an EION impingement.  https://mhi-inc.com/glass-bending-optical-data-transfer/.
  7. Did you know?  Not all amorphous materials are transparent?  Even metals (which are normally crystalline) can be made into a metallic glass (i.e., amorphous) by cooling the liquid metal at a billion degrees per second.

February 27, 2022

  • Most people are familiar with the Centigrade (°C) and Fahrenheit (°F) temperature measurement scales. Did you know, -40°C = -40°F.
  • A change of 1°C is a change of 1.8°F
  • Did you also know there are other scales for temperature measurements, such as the Rankine, Romer, Newton, Delisle, and Reaumur temperature scales? All scales can be converted. Click for   Conversion_between the scales_of_temperatures.
  • Also, a Planck temperature-scale that ranges from 0-1 (Tp) where 0(Tp) = 0(°K) and 1(Tp) = 1.416×10^32 (°K).
  • More about thermodynamics and Planck energy on  MHI Watt Calculator.

February 20, 2022

Did you know?

Human hair diameter can range from about 20 micrometers to 180 micrometers.

More Dimensional Scales of Interest

  • Average Diameter of the earth: 12,792 Km (Km-kilometer) (10^3m)
  • Deepest ocean trench: ~10,994 m  (m-meter)
  • Highest mountain: ~ 8,850 m
  • Human scale: ~1 m
  • Pencil tip: ~1 mm (mm-millimeter)(10^3 m)
  • Grain of salt: ~0.1-1 mm
  • Bacterium: ~1-10 micrometer (10^-6 m)
  • Viruses: Typically, 30-150 nm
  • The size of the coronavirus is (~50- 150 nm) (nm-nanometers).
  • The size of spikes on the virus envelope ~20 nm.  These are also known as spike proteins.
  • Typical size of pores in a good respirator ~300 nm.  Therefore, multiple barriers/layers are used in a mask.
  • Antibodies: Typically, 10nm
  • Atoms/molecules ~0.1 nm-100nm (10^9 m)
  • Electrons: ~10^7 nm (nanometer)
  • Planck’s length (quarks): ~10^26 nm (the smallest scale that is believed to exist in space-time)

February 12, 2022

Spiral profiles optimize properties including radiation properties. See for example https://mhi-inc.com/Microheaters.htm.

Did you know that involute shapes have amazing properties that make them extremely important for engineering products? From gears, compressors, and fans, involute-shaped products allow for low friction, low-noise, and high-life. Now, abundantly used in radiation heating.

A spiral is an involute curve which emanates from a point, moving farther away as it revolves around the point. The most common form is the Archimedean Spiral defined by the equation r = a+ b(theta) in polar coordinates. A helix and vortex are three dimensional spirals.

Nature invokes these shapes for a variety of building blocks from galaxies to cellular matter. Spirals are also key thematic blocks for many art forms. Spirals and vortex depictions can be found across historical art forms e.g., pre-Columbian art in Latin and Central America. Spirals are also a psychedelic form of art to induce hypnotic effects.

A very useful and unique spiral is the Fibonacci spiral. For mathematicians and biologists alike, November 23 is very special day because it can be written as 11|23, the start of the Fibonacci sequence.  Then one can build a squarish sort of nautilus by starting with a square of size 1 and successively building on new squares whose sizes correspond to the Fibonacci sequence.  Phyllotaxis is the study of the arrangement of leaves, branches, flowers or seeds in plants with a heavy reliance on the Fibonacci sequence.

February 5, 2022

The most pressing engineering problems today include:

  1. Energy Efficiency.  Energy savings: why should we be concerned with energy-quality conservation?
  2. Climate change.  Climate impact solutions
  3. Pathogen Control.  Pathogen control.
  4. Planning for Sustainability. Solutions for sustainability
  5. Water Conservation. Examples of water savings
  6. Conversion of High Energy Conversion Devices to Electric. Examples

January 29, 2022

It’s all about shape and size:

  • Bacteria tend to be ~ 2 micrometers or larger depending on their shape.
  • Because they are so large, bacteria can be viewed with an optical microscope (optical microscopes are limited to 1000X).
  • Viruses can range from 20 nm (nanometers) e.g., the parvovirus, to 1000 nm, like the Pithovirus, depending on their shape.
  • Coronaviruses are about 25-100 nanometers in diameter (including the SARS CoV-2 virus).
  • Respiratory droplets are typically 1-10 micrometers (µm) in diameter; therefore, could carry hundreds or thousands of virus particles.
  • Antibodies are of the order of 10 nanometers.
  • Steam molecules are sub-nanometer in size.
  • Read about anti-microbial cleaning  here.
  • Read about steam generators here.

January 22, 2022

Modern day Steam generators offer variable flow, instant high temperature steam and safety against high pressures.

January 15, 2088

The most pressing engineering problems today include:

  1. Energy Efficiency:  ENERGY SAVINGS: WHY SHOULD WE BE CONCERNED WITH ENERGY-QUALITY CONSERVATION?
  2. Climate Change:  CLIMATE IMPACT SOLUTIONS
  3. Pathogen Control:  PATHOGEN CONTROL.See also SaniZap®
  4. Planning for Sustainability and Simplicity: SOLUTIONS FOR SUSTAINABILITY.  See overview here.
  5. Water Conservation: EXAMPLES OF WATER SAVINGS.  More…
  6.    Mind-boggling New Hardware Technologies: EXAMPLES.

January 8 2022

Did you know?

  • Before the discovery of innovative thermal processes for their production, both iron and aluminum were costlier than gold?
  • In 1852, aluminum was sold at US$34 per ounce. In comparison, the price of gold at the time was $19 per ounce.
  • The dagger found in King Tut’s tomb (circa 1323 BCE) suggests that it is a Fe-Ni-Co alloy, most likely from a meteorite. As the dagger was cloaked in gold, it is likely that this iron alloy was more expensive than gold at that time.

January 1 2022

MHI is a manufacturer and direct supplier of patented (MoSi2) Molybdenum di-silicide electric heating elements.

  • No Pest ™ Technology: helps resist oxidation (pesting), improving element life and performance.
  • High Emissivity: our elements emit more energy per surface area.
  • MP1850: long life, high temperature upgrade. Replace 1800°C elements with MHI MP1850.
  • High Surface Load: capable of handling a high electrical power per length.
  • High Creep Resistant: less element distortion in complex elements.
  • Technology Leader: the first to market with 1850°C MoSi2 elements and the only patent protected 1900°C MoSi2 elements in the world.
  • Flexible Manufacturing: the ability to fulfill high-volume and low-volume orders.

December 18, 2021

Your chances of winning a Nobel Prize are high if you work in the field of Materials Science and Engineering.  Over 40 Nobels in the past 100 years. Here are some of them:

1920 – Invar (Metallic Alloy):  Charles Édouard Guillaume

1956 – Semiconductor physics & transistor: John Bardeen, Walter Houser Brattain and W. Shockley

1987 – Ceramic superconductors: Johannes Georg Bednorz and Karl Alexander Müller

1996 – Fullerenes: Robert F. Curl, Harold W. Kroto, and Richard E. Smalley

2007 – GMR (Giant Magnetoresistance)  Albert Fert and  Peter Grünberg

2011 – Quasicrystals (Metal Alloy)  Daniel Shechtman

December 11, 2021

Did you know that saving energy for an objective is the best method for impacting climate change?

December 3, 2021

  • Did you know that Self Organized Patterns are seen all over nature from the molecular scale to the galactic scale?
  • One example for pattern formation is seen in birds that fly in a pattern during long distance migration.  Often, they form a “V” shaped pattern.  Did you ever wonder why?
  • The various theories for their pattern include (1) they gain a lift advantage from the leading bird, (2) the “V” Pattern is the most power optimization condition. This is a feature of a newly discovered principle for pattern formation called the Maximum Entropy Production Rate (MEPR) principle for Self-organization.  MEPR also allows for energy optimization.
  • More on Energy Quality Optimization at https://mhi-inc.com/simplicity-energy-efficiency-improvements/

January 1 2022

MHI is a manufacturer and direct supplier of patented (MoSi2) Molybdenum disilicide electric heating elements.

  • No Pest ™ Technology: helps resist oxidation (including pesting), thus improving element life and performance.
  • High Emissivity: our elements emit more energy per surface area.
  • MP1850: long life, high temperature upgrade. Replace 1800°C elements with MHI MP1850.
  • High Surface Load: capable of handling a high electrical power per length.
  • High Creep Resistant: less element distortion in complex elements.
  • Technology Leader: the first to market with 1850°C MoSi2 elements and the only patent protected 1900°C MoSi2 elements in the world.
  • Flexible Manufacturing: the ability to fulfill high-volume and low-volume orders.

December 18, 2021

Your chances of winning a Nobel Prize are high if you work in the field of Materials Science and Engineering.  Over 40 Nobels in the past 100 years. Here are some of them:

1920 – Invar (Metallic Alloy):  Charles Édouard Guillaume

1956 – Semiconductor physics & transistor: John Bardeen, Walter Houser Brattain and W. Shockley

1987 – Ceramic superconductors: Johannes Georg Bednorz and Karl Alexander Müller

1996 – Fullerenes: Robert F.   Curl, Harold W. Kroto, and Richard E. Smalley

2007 – GMR (Giant Magnetoresistance)  Albert Fert and  Peter Grünberg

2011 – Quasicrystals (Metal Alloy)  Daniel Shechtman

December 11, 2021

Did you know that saving energy for an objective is the best method for impacting climate change?

December 3, 2021

  • Did you know that Self Organized Patterns are seen all over nature from the molecular scale to the galactic scale?
  • An example for pattern formation is observed  in birds that fly in a pattern during long distance migration.  Often, they form a “V” shaped pattern.  Did you ever wonder why?
  • The various possibilities for such a pattern pattern include (1)  a lift advantage from the leading bird, (2) the “V” Pattern provides the most power-optimization condition. This is a feature of a newly discovered principle for pattern formation called the Maximum Entropy Production Rate (MEPR) principle for Self-organization.  MEPR also allows for energy optimization.
  • More on Energy Quality Optimization at  https://mhi-inc.com/simplicity-energy-efficiency-improvements/

November 7, 2021

There is now a worldwide research effort in clean high temperature steam.

  • High temperature steam is used in surface technologies, cleaning technologies, steam drying, catalysis, chemical reaction processing, surface drying technologies, curing technologies, energy systems and nanotechnologies, particularly in the clean energy sectors. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superheated_steam.
  • The application of superheated steam for sanitation in dry food processing  and plant environment is very important.

Some of the  leading US superheated-steam company websites include https://mhi-inc.com/superheated-steam-generators-electric-steam-generator/ for industrial steam  and www.bayzi.com for commercial high quality high temperature steam.

October 31, 2021

Microheaters and Nano-heaters  are used for a variety of applications: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microheater

Fuel Cell Heat Sources, Electronics and Substrate Heating,  RF Applications, Micro tube-heaters for small volume gas heating, High Power micro-furnace with optional tube extension,  Fiber optics, Ideal for long aspect ratio/very small diameter pieces, Fiber optic use to reduce diameter of fibers, Igniters, MicroPlate heaters, Material Testing and Characterization, Thermal Property Measurements, Diamond Anvil Cells,  SEMTEMAFM, Gas/Vapor Heaters/Converters, Thin Film Preparation, and high emissivity radiation sources.

October 24, 2021

  • An odor starts out as a volatile molecule.  When these molecules enter airways, some get to the olfactory epithelia, a small patch of tissue containing about six million olfactory sensory neurons.  Our olfactory system shares the same signaling channel as our sense of pain. When we have particularly intense reactions to something that really smells bad – it hurts.
  • Porous materials like wood, walls and the fibers in carpets hold onto odor-causing molecules for years.
  • When faced with a bad smell, your first step should be to get its source out of the surface where it hides.
  • Did you know? the same principles as degreasers (see our Trivia of last week) apply to odor removal. Much of the advice to use the SaniZap-4 for degreasing will also apply to removing smells.
  • Using the proper high-quality steam can significantly reduce odor and pain ?.

October 17, 2021

New hygienic requirements exposed by this pandemic are forcing new levels of cleanliness in industrial plants.

  • The Society for Testing and Materials defines six groups of major contaminants in industrial parts. They are pigmented compounds, non-pigmented grease, rust and scaling, chips and buffing.
  • Oil dispersant cleaners and degreasers are employed to deal with all six groups.
  • Cleaners and degreasers are mostly aqueous in nature and are composed of a combination of surfactants, sequestering agents and alkaline builders and other special use agents.
  • Most degreasers work on the chemical principle of molecular dislodging where one of the agent molecule in the cleaning agent has a long hydrophobic chain, which is the end that is attracted to the oil and grease and a molecular hydrophilic end which is attracted to water.
  • The hydrophobic molecules surround the oil particles and dislodges it and makes it flow away with water.

Did you a know?  that a special steam degreaser now allows very rapid degrease action for even the most stubborn grime-stains with minimal water usage?

The kinetic and thermal energy of the cleaning molecule is greatly enhanced for dislodging and lowering the viscosity of grease and grease-cakes.  Click here for more information.

October 10, 2021

Hydrogen use is one way of enabling net-zero harmful emissions during energy use.

Did you know there are several ways of making hydrogen?  Several of these methods also incorporate carbon capture or creation of useful carbon-products such as carbon-nitrides.

Four of the major methods receiving attention are:

  1. Methane Reforming of Fossil Fuels. https://mhi-inc.com/airtorch-applications/
  2. Steam-Methane Reforming. https://mhi-inc.com/steam-applications/
  3. Water-splitting by Electrolysis. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrolysis_of_water
  4. Decomposition of Methane during High-temperature Pyrolysis. https://mhi-inc.com/steam-applications/

Often, nano-scale catalysts like the Quasi-R® are employed during hydrogen production.

October 3, 2021

You may know:

  • High temperature steam is an ideal sanitizing agent. It is allowed for food contact surfaces, even for high bio loads, presents very low toxicity and is rapidly effective against yeasts, molds, fungi, and viruses.

But did you know?

  • that good high temperature steam leaves no wet spots or stains, unlike low temperature steam or sanitizing chemicals?  Click for more information.

Published reports:

September 26, 2021

The most pressing engineering problems today include:

1.    Energy Efficiency.  ENERGY SAVINGS: WHY SHOULD WE BE CONCERNED WITH ENERGY-QUALITY CONSERVATION?

2.    Climate Change.  CLIMATE IMPACT SOLUTIONs

3.    Pathogen Control.  PATHOGEN CONTROL.

4.    Planning for Sustainability. SOLUTIONS FOR SUSTAINABILITY

5.    Water Conservation. EXAMPLES OF WATER SAVINGS

September 19, 2021


  • Energy
     is measured in Joules or BTU.  1 Joule =0.00095 BTU.  The cost of electrical-energy is ~9US¢ per KWh.  Therefore 1 KJ of electric energy costs 0.0025 US¢.  A match stick produces 1 KJ.  It is enough to light a self-sustaining candle flame but not much more.
  • However a device rated for 1KW, will produce 3600 KJ of energy in an hour.  This is enough energy to not only boil one Kg of water but also to raise its temperature almost to 800C.
  • Power  is the amount of energy that is converted in one unit of time (e.g. in a second).  Almost all devices are rated by their power. Power multiplied by the time the power is employed is energy used.
  • A more powerful device will be able to convert the same amount of energy faster ( speedier ) than a less powerful device.  Power is the rate at which you can do something, e.g. higher power can make an automobile accelerate faster, make a reaction go faster, and so on.  Watt  (W) is a unit of power .    1 J/s (Joule per second) = 1 W (Watt) .
  • Because the Watt is a small unit, the power of a device is rated in kW (KiloWatt)  or BTU/hr.   1KW = 3414 BTU/hr.  One Million BTU/hr= 293.07 KW

September 12, 2021

The Rock Cycle

Rock has been an important natural resource for humans. The first tools produced by humans were made from stone/rocks.  Most rocks are composed of minerals often mixed with organic matter.

Rocks are classified by how they are formed, their composition, and texture. Granite, limestone, marble, sandstone, and slate are common rock materials. It takes temperatures between 500 and 1,400 degrees Celsius to melt a rock, turning it into a substance called magma (molten rock).

The rock cycle is a concept in geology that describes transitions through geologic time among the three main rock types: sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous.

  • Igneous rocks are formed from melted rock deep inside the Earth.
  • Sedimentary rocks are formed from layers of sand, silt, dead plants, and animal skeletons.
  • Metamorphic rocks formed from other rocks that are changed by heat and pressure underground.

Did you know steam can lower the melting point of a rock?  Did you know steam or hot air is often used in underground work?

Explore Steam Generators.  https://mhi-inc.com/superheated-steam-generators-electric-steam-generator/

Explore Hot Air Generators.  https://mhi-inc.com/airtorch-process-gas-heaters/

September 5, 2021

How fast does data travel?

Most data travels at higher than two-thirds the speed of light.  Researchers at the University of Southampton have produced fiber-optic cables that allow data to travel at 99.7% the speed of light.

The refractive index of a medium is the speed of light in a vacuum divided by the speed of light in the medium. The refractive index of glass is around 1.5.

Discovert Micro Fiberheaters? 

August 29, 2021

The term self-organization refers to processes where local organization is noted to occur without any significant external intervention.  New research has begun to indicate that self-organization processes are driven by maximizing the rate of entropy generation per unit volume. Self-organization leads to significant efficiencies across a variety of fields ranging from relationship-clusters, data networks to useful patterns in animate and inanimate regions of interest.

August 22, 2021

It’s all about size:

  • Bacteria tend to be ~ 2 micrometers or larger depending on their shape  and can be seen with optical microscopes.
  • Viruses can range from 20 (such as parvovirus) to 1000 nanometers (such as Pitovirus) in size depending on their shape.  1 nanometer =10^(-3)) micrometer
  • The various coronavirus structures are about 25-100  nanometers in diameter (including the SARS CoV-2 virus).
  • Respiratory droplets are typically 1-10 micrometers (µm) in diameter; therefore, could carry hundreds or thousands of virus particles.
  • Antibodies are of the order of 10 nanometers.
  • Steam molecules are sub-nanometer in size.
  • Read about anti-microbial cleaning  here.

August 15, 2021

The scale and shape of patterns at any magnification can be correlated to properties of interest.

For example, the size and shape of grains in a solid is related to the strength and toughness of a solid.

Or the size and shape of a weld pool is a consequence of the eddy patterns in the liquid zone during welding.

New research is shedding light on the entropy generation during any process. This explains several features of clustering of galaxies to the formation of nanocrystals.

Did you know that maximum entropy generation during a process leads to an optimal shape formation? More information on  https://mhi-inc.com/Converter/watt_calculator.htm

August 8, 2021

Sustainability is related to saving energy.  Are there ways to dramatically lower this energy usage?

The use of energy in steam boilers is considerable.

  • Did you know that one can use Steam generators today instead of high pressure boilers?   The flow rate, temperatures and back pressures can be easily controlled in steam generators.
  • Most legacy boilers are large.  These are often located in a boiler room.  The steam produced is then trucked from this room to the entire plant, hospital or university.  Boiler steam is at high pressure.
  • Boilers take time to build up pressure and temperature.  Steam generators are very rapid and can be turned on and off on demand.
  • See modern steam generators here: www.mhi-inc.com.  Several applications are possible with high temperature steam to cut down energy usage.
  • One can save considerable energy using steam at will and the save water as steam generators provide flexible water flow with modern MHI controls.

August 1, 2021

  • Where does space begin?  At the Kármán line. The most commonly recognized imaginary boundary of space is at an altitude of about 62 miles ~100 km above sea level.  Some however place it at a lower 80 km.  The earth’s atmosphere ends here and space begins.
  • Where does space end?  There is perhaps no end to space.  Regardless, the present estimate is that it is 93 billion light years from one side to the other.
  • Since the universe is about 13.8 billion years old, any light from a galaxy more than 13.8 billion light-years away would not have had had time to reach us yet. That is the basis for our best measurement for the radius of the observable Universe.
  • How fast do spaceships travel?  Like any other object in low-earth orbit, a shuttle must reach speeds of about 17,500 miles per hour (28,000 kilometers per hour) to remain in orbit.
  • Did you know? that both the Blue Origin Shuttle (which flew to 100 km boundary, 328,000 feet)  and Virgin Galactic Shuttle flights (which flew to the 80 km boundary, 262,000 feet) were suborbital i.e. carried their passengers to the edge of space to float in microgravity for a few minutes.

July 25, 2021

We honor three great scientists this week.

  • Aryabhata Circa 500 AD discovered an approximation of pi, as 3.1416. He also reasoned that the planets and the our moon shine by reflecting sunlight, and that the motion of the stars is due to earth’s rotation.
  • Leonhard Euler Circa 1750 AD was a prolific mathematician whose work spanned the fields of geometry, calculus, trigonometry, algebra, number theory, physics, and astronomy. Euler was the first to introduce the notation for a function f(x).  Euler’s equation for any  convex polygon stated that V – E + F = 2  where V is the number of vertices, E the number of edges, and F is the number of faces of the polygon.
  • Emmy Noether Circa 1900 AD made immense contributions to both algebra and physics. She is best known for Noether’s theorem which states that if a system has a continuous symmetry property, then there are corresponding quantities whose values are conserved in time.  This is the fundamental basis for energy conservation.

Almost everything we make in MHI Inc. (www.mhi-inc.com) utilizes their great contributions.

July 18, 2021

Did you know that modern processing of electronic materials and other materials relies on plasma surface interactions?

  • One of the most beautiful examples of naturally occurring plasma is the Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights.
  • Auroras Borealis is a plasma, formed by disturbances of charged particlesin the magnetospheric plasma.
  • These particles, mainly electronsand protons, enter  into the upper atmosphere. The resulting ionization and excitation of atmospheric constituents emit light of varying colors and complexity.
  • Based on the temperature and density of the environment that contains a plasma, a partially ionized or fully ionized form of plasma may be recognized.
  • The  Cascade E-ionis a new type of plasma.

July 11, 2021

July 4, 2021

Thermal radiation (also called heat radiation) Process by which energy, in the form of electromagnetic radiation, is emitted by a heated surface in all directions.  The total radiant heat energy emitted by a surface is proportional to the fourth power of its absolute temperature.  This is the Stefan–Boltzmann law.  In addition, a surface may emit or absorb radiation selectively depending on its chemical make-up, not just its temperature.

Did you know some compounds  like fluorite show Thermoluminescence.  Some minerals emit light when heated that has nothing to do with the Stefan-Boltzmann law. The emitted light released is from relaxing electrons that were out of their normal positions within the crystal lattice of such a substance from a previous exposure to high-energy radiation (for example UV light). High energy radiation creates excited electronic states in crystalline materials.  Heating the substance at temperatures to about 450° C enables the displaced electrons to return to their normal positions, resulting in the release of energy which appears as luminescence.  The amount of luminescence is used for dating pottery and as a tool for sand migration (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermoluminescence

June 27, 2021

When a light beam (electromagnetic radiation) is emitted from a source e.g. a light bulb, it keeps on self- propagating because the magnetic and electric waves are out of phase. The light beam stops at the end of the universe or if an absorbing media is placed in its path.

Did you know that steam is a self-propagating gas?  Inside a pipe, any condensation at the front of the steam-gas, causes a vacuum, thereby causing more propagation.  This is why steam-gas can travel to great distances.  https://mhi-inc.com/

June 20, 2021

When heated, even before metal begins to glow red, one can feel the emission of infrared waves (IR) by the heat sensation on the skin.  Heat is generally transferred by IR waves which have longer wavelengths than visible radiation.  When heated further to increasingly high temperatures, metal will glow red, then yellow, and finally white.  This is because a spectrum of frequencies is emitted at any given temperature. The wavelength decreases with increasing temperature.

However, not all solids emit the same spread of frequencies at the same temperature. Transparent glass for example cannot glow red like a metal does, because it cannot absorb red.  A body radiates frequencies that it can absorb. Transparent glass is transparent to red.  However, glass emits (and absorbs) infrared radiation better than a metal.

Did you know that the sun emits 60 million watts of radiation per square meter of its surface?  The earth’s surface only gets 1300 watts per square meter of this radiation.

The Eion plasma is designed for very high emission of specific wavelengths.  Www.mhi-inc.com

June 13, 2021

The sun has enough nuclear fuel to stay much as it is now for another 5 billion years. After that, it will swell to become a red giant. Then, it will shed its outer layers, and the remaining core will collapse to become a white dwarf.   Slowly, the white dwarf will fade and stop radiating in the visible range.  The sun has a very dense inner core.  The out layers are hot convective, often ionized gas.

Like most other stars, the sun is made up mostly of hydrogen, followed by helium.   Nearly all the remaining matter consists of seven other elements — oxygen, carbon, neon, nitrogen, magnesium, iron, and silicon.

The Sun’s magnetic field (almost twice as strong as the earth’s magnetic field) goes through a cycle, called the solar cycle. Every 11 years or so, the Sun’s magnetic field completely flips.  Our Northern lights are caused by charged particles from the sun. When these charged particles hit the atoms and molecules high up in our atmosphere, they become excited. This creates two glowing rings of auroral emission around the North and South magnetic poles, known as auroral ovals.

Did you know that the Cascade E-ion mimics some of these emissions?  https://mhi-inc.com/cascade-e-ion-devices/

June 6, 2021

Did you know these sustainability-impacting numbers can make a difference?

  • A water faucet that leaks one drop per second can add up to 165 gallons a month. That is approximately 624 Kg of water loss.
  • Some new refrigerators are so energy-efficient (100W power rating), they are similar in power rating to one light bulb.
  • Heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems account for 40-60 percent of the total energy use in the commercial sector. The total energy use in the world is approximately about 600ExaJoules. Of this, the total use in the commercial and residential sectors is about 35%.
  • One ton of 100 percent recycled paper saves the equivalent of 4,100 kWh of energy (i.e., $410 @$0.1/kWh), 7,000 gallons of water (i.e., $10.50@ $1.50/1000gallons), 60 pounds of air emissions (note it is estimated that 3.3% of the world GDP is lost to air pollution) and three cubic meters of landfill space (the estimated cost basis is about $53 per ton of landfill in 2020).
  • Using the OAB® steam generators, instead of pressure boilers, can save 90% in the cost of energy and water for packaging.

May 30, 2021

  • Did you know Microheaters are made in spiral, linear or even as 3D heater shapes for additive manufacturing purposes?
  • Special microheater shapes patented by MHI optimize properties, including radiation properties. See for example https://mhi-inc.com/Microheaters.htm.
  • Linear Profiles are like a hot knife edge https://mhi-inc.com/microheaters/
  • A spiral is an involute curve which emanates from a point, moving farther away as it revolves around the point. The most common form is the Archimedean Spiral defined by the equation r = a+ b(theta) in polar coordinates. A helix and vortex are three dimensional spirals. Nature invokes these shapes for a variety of building blocks, from galaxies to cellular matter. Spirals are also key thematic blocks for many art forms. Spirals and vortex depictions can be found across historical art forms, e.g. pre-Columbian art in Latin and Central America. Spirals are also used to depict hypnotic effects.
  • Did you know that the involute shapes have amazing properties that make them extremely important for engineering products? From gears, jet-engine fan blades, compressors and fans, the involute shaped products allow for low-friction, low-noise and high-life.
  • Did you know MHI patented nano-texture technology is useful for saving considerable friction energy –  www.mhi-inc.com.

May 16, 2021

Steam is used for a variety of applications in commerce and industry: • Fuel from Waste  • Process heating • Vacuum jets • Shaft work for mechanical drives • Power generation • Space heating.

May 9, 2021

Why use steam? Did you know?

  • Self-drying™ steam leaves no mess or puddle.
  • For demanding hospital environment: Easy to use, quick disinfection, broad kill range, reduce potential of cross-contamination, non-toxic and will not damage surfaces.
  • Active agent is not a biocidal or toxic chemical (just H2O is the active ingredient). disinfection is exceedingly fast and broad-spectrum. There is no chance of introducing chemical cross-resistance to antibiotics.
  • Surfaces do not become sticky, no stain, or discoloration over time.
  • Staff can disinfect as frequently as necessary without long-term chemical exposure concerns.
  • The steam cleaning tool is hot, so the potential for cross-contamination from surface to surface or room to room is greatly reduced.  This is in sharp-contrast to a fog, spray and wipe approach, which could possibly spread pathogens if the disinfectant is overused or inactivated for any reason including staleness.
  • By using proper steam (200°C) any high-touch surfaces can be disinfected on an hourly basis without damage to the surface. Prevents chemical induced irritation to sensitive populations or long-term risks to customers or staff.
  • As steam inactivates microbes very rapidly (seconds with steam compared to minutes for many chemicals), steam is considered a high productivity method.

The SaniZap® steam technology is expected to significantly benefit Sanitation.  What is SaniZap® self-drying antimicrobial Technology?

See also The history of Sanitation and Hygiene..

May 2, 2021

  • Did you know that Nano Texture and Nanotechnology of surfaces is critically import for friction and antimicrobial steel?  MHI Inc. has developed and patented several of these inventions.
  • The prefix “nano” most likely comes from the Greek word meaning Dwarf.
  • The diameter of one oxygen atom is approximately 0.14 nm (nanometers).
  • The diameter of human hair lies between 10 -200 micrometers i.e. between 10,000 to 200,000 nm.
  • We use several products with nanometer scale internal features, like the GoldenBlue® tool bits, Fishing Lure, Sunscreen Lotion, and Mayonnaise.
  • Man-made nanoscale crystals (nanoparticles) called quantum dots can transport electrons. When UV light hits these semiconducting nanoparticles, they can emit light of various colors.

April 25, 2021

Did you know that some of the most common engineering principles are not quite well understood?

  • Creating Lift .  If you thought you understood Bernoulli’s principle as the basis for lift – think again!  A fascinating article in Scientific American  https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/no-one-can-explain-why-planes-stay-in-the-air/ describes the difficulty with understanding lift from Bernoulli’s principle or from Newtons second law. There are two competing theories that illuminate the forces and factors of lift.  However both are incomplete explanations.
  • The Lever principle . Levers can be used to exert a large force over a small distance at one end  by exerting only a small force (or effort) over a greater distance at the other. According to legend, Archimedes (287-212 B.C.E.) once famously said “Give me a place to stand, and I shall move the Earth with it” when he uncovered the physical principles behind the lever.  However, this principle is derived only when there is a certain distance travelled (work done) because energy is conserved.  Yet we use the principle for balancing lever-loads, i.e., for determining mechanical equilibrium even where there is no motion.
  • Similarly we are now grappling with easy ionization from air without high voltage conditions.   https://mhi-inc.com/cascade-e-ion-devices/

April 18, 2021

The problem of atmosphere clean-up is severe. The search is ongoing to find reactions for CO2 and reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, like plants do with Photosynthesis.

MHI Airtorch® and MHI Plasma Systems assist catalysis.

  • Gases like methane CH4(g) can be removed through Steam Reforming.
  • CH4+ H2O(g) = CO(g) + 3H2(g) Steam Reforming above ~750C. Both CO and H2 are reducing gasses for several oxides.
  • Also 2CO(g) + NaN3 = 2C + NaO2 + 1.5N2(g) is possible even at medium temperatures.
  • The inverse Boudouard reaction CO2 + C=2CO can occur above ~750C.
  • Similarly Fe2O3 + hot CO(g) can yield clean Fe and CO2 (the blast furnace reaction).
  • Hot CO2 or CO can easily be reacted with azides of Na, Ca, Li etc. to make useful solids or liquids, while the oxides of alkali metals can be recovered.
  • NaN2 +CO2 or Ca-N or Li-N compounds can be reacted with hot CO2; or oxides can be reacted with hot CO for clean metal production.
  • Syngas can be easily heated. Various combinatorial ratios are feasible.
  • Hot CO2(g) + NaN3 = C + NaO2 + 1.5N2(g) is negative free energy with good kinetics above 980C. Catalysts available. Quasi R®

April 11, 2021

Power  is the amount of energy that is converted in one unit of time (e.g. in a second). Devices are rated by their power. Power is oomph! A more powerful device will be able to convert the same amount of energy faster ( speedier ) than a less powerful device.  Power is the rate at which you can do something, e.g. higher power can make an automobile accelerate faster, make a reaction go faster, and so on.   A Watt  (W) is a unit of power .    1 J/s (Joule per second) = 1 W (Watt) .  Because the Watt is a small unit, the power of a device is rated in kW or BTU/hr.   1kW (KiloWatt) = 3414 BTU/hr.   Brake horsepower (bhp) is the measure of an engine’s horsepower before the loss in power caused by the gearbox and drive train.  Electric cars and Hybrids often have a dash-display for kW.   Note that 1hp (horsepower) = 0.746kW.

For your electric bill, you are charged ~9US¢ for every KWhr (power x time used).  Typical power ratings.

Light Bulbs:  ~0.03-0.2 kW ( Example)

Home Sanitizing Devices: 1-4 kW ( Examples)

Home Refrigerators/ Washer/ Dryers: 2-5 kW

Electric Stoves: 4 kW

Cars: 20-300 kW

 

April 3, 2021

  • The strings of musical instruments were originally made from the guts of animals like sheep or lamb.
  • Today, they are made from a variety of materials including  catgut  (sheep intestine), nylon, and steel.  Instrument makers have transitioned to metal wiring, mostly stainless steel.
  • From high-note to low-note, the strings on the violin are E(~0.5mm), A (~0.76mm), D (~1.14mm), and G (~1.17mm). These diameters are approximate and change between manufacturers.
  • The wires have to be carefully drawn and even more carefully  heat treated. Then they are often plated in platinum, gold, and silver (particularly for the E String).
  • The gauge (gage) of a string is its thickness. Gauge and tension can also be referred to in terms of weight i.e., heavy, medium, or light gauge or tension. Tensions and gauges of strings vary from brand to brand.

March 27, 2021

Did you know?  Several technologies that are being developed for addressing the climate change on Earth use are actually important for Mars.

  • Mars  is called the Red Planet because its iron-rich dust gives it a rusty-red color. This dust, however, is a problem for equipment that we send from earth.
  • At the equator, Mars is a comfortable 26°C, but the temperature at its poles can be very low.
  • The atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide with traces of nitrogen and argon. This is why the new CO2-to-useful-products  technologies are important for Mars.
  • A Martian day is almost the same as Earth (just slightly longer).  The gravity is about 0.38 that of earth.

Oxide to oxygen  conversion technologies are going to be important for making oxygen on Mars.  The ice caps on Mars actually hold almost 10-15% water.

March 20, 2021

 

Did you know there is a direct connection between energy use and the degradation of the environment? When you consume less energy for the same objective, you can reduce the amount of toxic fumes (including CO2) released by (combustion) power generating plants.

Energy degrades when it is used. MHI’s mission is energy quality conservation.  To this end MHI Inc. has created energy efficient materials and systems  https://mhi-inc.com/EnergyefficiencyLinksforGrants.htm.

MHI Inc. has pioneered

Follow our progress  https://mhi-inc.com/simplicity-energy-efficiency-improvements/.

 

March 13, 2021

We live in a strange universe where most of it is unknown to us. Many of the unknowns are beautifully explained  here. Here is a sample of what we don’t know:

  • Dark Energy : In the most widely accepted model of dark energy, it is an inherent property of space itself, which has “negative pressure” driving space apart. As space expands, more space is created, and with it, more dark energy. Based on the observed rate of expansion, scientists know that the sum of all the dark energy must make up more than 70 percent of the total contents of the universe.
  • Dark Matter : Cannot be seen directly nor has it been detected by indirect means. Dark matter’s existence is inferred from its gravitational-like effects on visible matter, radiation and the structure of the universe. The estimate is that 84 percent of the matter in the universe does not absorb or emit light. One study suggests dark matter  radiates out from Earth in the form of fine-grained streams.

While all of these are being explored we take solace that one key law is not violated. Time moves forward because of a property called entropy – there is no way to reverse a rise in entropy after it has occurred (i.e. the entropy of the universe can only increase). A small amount of space with very low entropy apparently ballooned out to what it is now. Perhaps space-time is flat so that it can expand out to infinity? Cosmologists have constructed a theory called inflation that accounts for the way in which a small volume of space occupied by a virtual particle pair (like matter and antimatter) could have ballooned to become the vast universe we see today. For several things we don’t have the tools or understanding:   For example, at 200,000 atmospheres, oxygen organizes to a blue colored, strong, eight atom lattice, but we are not quite sure what happens if compressed a lot more. Or for example the exciting new  Plasma that has been discovered.  Why does it work?

March 6, 2021

Did you know flat radiant heaters are used in various configurations? The most important feature is the simplicity in the heater design and materials.

Most of the time single phase heaters perform more reliably than three phase radiant heaters.  Ideal heaters offer high emissivity and good coverage.

Typical uses:

  • Vapor deposition
  • Inside reactors for activating catalysts
  • Testing with high intensity heat flux on a wide surface. Typical 500KW/m2.
  • Semiconductor processing
  • Ceramic manufacturing

and a variety of other uses listed on  https://mhi-inc.com/radiant-pancake-style-flat-heating-element/ and  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microheater

February 27, 2021

Did you know?  Several technologies that are being developed for addressing the climate change on Earth use are actually important for Mars.

  • Mars  is called the Red Planet because its iron-rich dust gives it a rusty-red color. This dust, however, is a problem for equipment that we send from earth.
  • At the equator, Mars is a comfortable 26°C, but the temperature at its poles can be very low.
  • The atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide with traces of nitrogen and argon. This is why the new CO2-to-useful-products  technologies are important for Mars.
  • A Martian day is almost the same as Earth (just slightly longer).  The gravity is about 0.38 that of earth.

Oxide to oxygen  conversion technologies are going to be important for making oxygen on Mars.  The ice caps on Mars actually hold almost 10-15% water.

February 20, 2021

The US Electric Grid.

  • The US has over 450,000 miles of power lines today (about 18 times the circumference of the earth).  The distance to the Moon by comparison is 238,900 Miles.
  • There is no single national power grid in the US.  The US electrical system is comprised of three smaller grids called interconnections — the Eastern Interconnection, the Western Interconnection, and the Texas Interconnected system.  The stability of the grid is of major concern during severe weather events.
  • The first commercial power grid, called the Pearl Street Station, was created by Thomas Edison in lower Manhattan in 1882.  This was followed by a number of grids that came into existence across the US. Only after WWII did this inefficient system start integrating.  Today there is activity to move back to the microgrid (local grids) system
  • While the plant’s steam engines provided grid electricity, Edison also used the byproducts, distributing steam to local manufacturers and warming the neighboring buildings.
  • Power outages triggered by bad weather costs the economy between $15 to $35 billion each year in lost output and wages, spoiled inventory, delayed production and damage to grid infrastructure.

February 14, 2021

February 6, 2021

Did you know environmentally safe die heating is now feasible with the  https://mhi-inc.com/airtorch-process-gas-heaters Airtorch®?

  • With direct Airtorch® heating ( https://mhi-inc.com/airtorch-applications/) or by supplementing with the Airtorch® and blankets, the thermal watt density on the mold is increased.
  • This reduces the workload in an environmentally sound manner and improves performance and die-life.
  • It reduces down time and energy efficiency.  See published articles  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02711865.
  • Other results include an increase in the temperature uniformity across the mold surface.  Contact MHI for more information.

January 30, 2021

Temperature control mechanisms (thermoregulation) are seen in live systems too– not just in microheaters and furnaces.

  • Animal flight is a very energetically expensive form of locomotion that requires a high metabolic rate. In fact, several large insects need to warm-up before flight.
  • Getting to acceptable temperatures is called   physiological thermoregulation  because heat is generated by a physiological process inside the insect.
  • This involves inefficient muscle operation that produces excess heat and establishes the thermal range in which specific muscles can function. The high metabolic cost of insect flight muscles means that great amounts of chemical energy are utilized by these specific muscles.  However, only a very small percentage of this energy translates into actual mechanical work or wing movement.   The second law of thermodynamics.
  • In order for an animal to fly, its flight muscles need to be capable of high mechanical power output, which in turn, due to biochemical inefficiencies, produce large amounts of energy that is dissipated as heat. But dissipating this heat is also difficult. So although high velocity flight should cool the body, sometimes the body heats up excessively during flight and birds can just fall out of the sky. More often there are regulatory and thermal control practices that an animal employs.  Perhaps even formation flying is one of those mechanisms which is practices by a collection of birds.
  • Butterflies are  examples of insects that are heliotherms (deriving heat almost exclusively from the sun).

January 23, 2021

Science is full of very curious facts. Did you know?

January 17, 2021

Did you know there are key differences between ancient furnaces and modern furnaces? Two major differences.

  • Modern furnaces are electrically heated (no combustion) – so they reach high temperatures exceeding 1700°C (3092°F). Electric heating allows for process control, improved process productivity and therefore much higher efficiencies.
  • The second is the roof span. Earlier, only fire-bricks were available and roof shapes and spans of these furnaces were constrained by arches and chimneys . Today, a host of new composites are used in furnace construction. Newly available materials like NanoFractalAlumina™ allow for very wide roof spans. When coupled with modern roof hanger designs, the roofs can be made to span several feet in width. Examples are seen in  High Quality High Temperature High Efficiency Furnaces – MHI-INC (mhi-inc.com)

January 10, 2021

Did you know that modern processing of electronic materials and other materials relies on plasma surface interactions?

  • Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
  • It consists of a gas of activated species such as ions and free electrons.
  • Based on the temperature and density of the environment that contains a plasma, a partially ionized or fully ionized form of plasma may be recognized.
  • Neon signs  are examples of partially ionized plasmas. The Earth’s ionosphere is a plasma surrounding the earth.  The interior of the sun is an example thought to comprise of fully ionized plasma like other stars.

Not everything is known about plasmas.  The  Cascade E-ion is a new type of plasma.

January 2, 2021

Did you know that prefixes took over a 100 years to adopt.  The last being in 1991.

Prefix Name Prefix Symbol Expressed as Base 10 Long scale Word
yotta Y  1024  quadrillion
zetta Z  1021  trilliard
exa E  1018  trillion
peta P  1015  billiard
tera T  1012  billion
giga G  109  milliard
mega M  106 million
kilo k  103 thousand
hecto h  102 hundred
deca da  101 ten
 100
deci d  10−1 tenth
centi c  10−2 hundredth
milli m  10−3 thousandth
micro μ  10−6 millionth
nano n  10−9  milliardth
pico p  10−12  billionth
femto f  10−15  billiardth
atto a  10−18  trillionth
zepto z  10−21  trilliardth
yocto y  10−24  quadrillionth

December 27, 2020

Did you know that advances in materials continuously improve the performance of computers?

  • A disk drive is a device that reads and/or writes data to a disk.  Some examples include removable storage devices and optical drives which read optical media, such as CD’s or DVD’s.  All such drives use magnetic or optical phase change materials to encode bits. The highest-capacity available high-density-discs offered about 16 Terra Bytes in 2020.
  • Major advances were made with phase change chalcogenide glasses last century.  In the 1960’s, Stanford R. Ovshinsky first explored the properties of chalcogenide glasses as a potential material for memory technology.  Phase change from a glassy to crystalline state can happen in a few nanoseconds in the more modern versions of such materials.   In 1969, Charles Sie at Iowa State University described and demonstrated the feasibility of a phase-change-memory device by integrating chalcogenide film with a diode array.
  • Since 1991 solid state drives are being considered.   Solid state storage  is enabled from silicon microchips.   Because there are no moving parts, solid state drives require less power and waste less energy than spinning hard disk drives or magnetic tape.

Yet dust remains a problem for all types of drives and memory devices.  New material technologies are currently being developed to address this dust issue.

December 19, 2020

Did you know that low temperature is important to preserve vaccines or to stabilize electron beam imaging?  Two common ways to obtain very low temperatures are with liquid nitrogen or dry (CO2) ice.

Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen (N2) in a liquid state at low temperature; boiling point at sea level is −195.79 °C  or -320 °F.   It is produced industrially by fractional distillation of liquid air.   It is a colorless, low viscosity liquid that is widely used as a coolant.

Dry ice is solid carbon dioxide. At its surface it has a temperature of -109.3 degrees °F or (-78.5 °C).   A frozen block of dry ice transforms directly into a gas, skipping the liquid phase entirely. This is called sublimation.  Dry ice offers more than twice the cooling energy per pound and three times the cooling energy per volume compared to regular water ice (H2O).  Because it does not melt, and because it can be formed in solid blocks or pellets, it is a popular choice for shipping certain foods and medicines. Dry ice can be a very serious hazard in a small space that is not well-ventilated. As dry ice melts, it turns into carbon dioxide gas. If enough carbon dioxide gas is present, a person can become unconscious or worse.

December 13, 2020

Power  is the amount of energy that is converted in one unit of time (e.g. in a second). Devices are rated by their power. Power is oomph! A more powerful device will be able to convert the same amount of energy faster ( speedier ) than a less powerful device.  Power is the rate at which you can do something, e.g. higher power can make an automobile accelerate faster, make a reaction go faster, and so on.   A Watt (W) is a unit of power.   1 J/s (Joule per second) = 1 W (Watt) .  Because the Watt is a small unit, the power of a device is rated in kW or BTU/hr.   1kW (KiloWatt) = 3414 BTU/hr.   Brake horsepower (bhp) is the measure of an engine’s horsepower before the loss in power caused by the gearbox and drive train.  Electric cars and Hybrids often have a dash-display for kW.   Note that 1hp (horsepower) = 0.746kW.

Devices used in homes are also rated and priced by their power consumption and delivery ability.  Did you know?  For your electric bill, you are charged ~9US¢ for every KWhr (power x time used).  Typical power ratings.

Light Bulbs:  ~0.03-0.2 kW ( Example)

Home Sanitizing Devices: 1-4 kW ( Examples)

Home Refrigerators/ Washer/ Dryers: 2-5 kW

Electric Stoves: 4 kW

Cars: 20-300 kW

December 7, 2020

What is commonly known as heat radiation lies in the Infrared part, the longer-than-light wavelengths. For solving engineering problems related to heating by radiation, it is a common assumption to consider emissivity as independent of wavelength. Such an approximation is called the grey-body approximation. Grey-body approximations are commonly made across the infrared spectrum. The Stefan-Boltzmann Law suggests that radiation heat transfer is proportional to T^4 (temperature to the power of four) where T is the temperature in Kelvin.

Wien’s law relates this temperature to a maximum wavelength (Lmax) in the radiation wavelength-spectrum of a black-body. Wien’s displacement law states that the spectral radiance of black-body radiation per unit wavelength peaks at the wavelength  Lmax  given by: (b/T) where   is the absolute temperature and  b=  2898 μm⋅K.  is a constant of proportionality called  Wien’s displacement constant .

Did you know  that recent results have begun pointing to a shift in the T^4 law when features below Lmax are associated with a radiating surface such as nano-scale features below ~1 micron  (see Quasi-R®)?

MHI patents and products optimize heat transfer rate. See for example, the GAXP® heating elements  https://mhi-inc.com/PG3/high-temperature-heating-elements.html

November 29, 2020

Power  is the amount of energy that is converted in one unit of time (e.g. in a second). Devices are rated by their power. Power is oomph! A more powerful device will be able to convert the same amount of energy faster ( speedier ) than a less powerful device.  Power is the rate at which you can do something, e.g. higher power can make an automobile accelerate faster, make a reaction go faster, and so on.   A Watt (W) is a unit of power.   1 J/s (Joule per second) = 1 W (Watt) .  Because the Watt is a small unit, the power of a device is rated in kW or BTU/hr.   1kW (KiloWatt) = 3414 BTU/hr.   Brake horsepower (bhp) is the measure of an engine’s horsepower before a loss in power caused by the gearbox and drive train.  Electric cars and Hybrids often have a dash-display for kW.   Note that 1hp (horsepower) = 0.746kW.

Devices used in homes are also rated and priced by their power consumption and delivery ability.  Did you know?  For your electric bill, you are charged ~9US¢ for every KWhr (power x time used).  Typical power ratings.

Light Bulbs:  ~0.03-0.2 kW ( Example)

Home Sanitizing Devices: 1-4 kW ( Examples)

Home Refrigerators/ Washer/ Dryers: 2-5 kW

Electric Stoves: 4 kW

Cars: 20-300 kW

November 22, 2020

Did you know that Robust Radiators are used for Zone Refining?    Robust Radiators can produce high-temperature zones.

A process called zone-refining is a useful method to obtain crystals of very high purity for critical use materials like silicon and germanium. It is also referred to as zone melting, floating zone process, and traveling melting zone.  Solidification/ crystal growth studies are often carried out by observing the freezing behavior  of transparent materials in related zone refining studies, even in space.

Since impurities are generally more soluble in the molten state of metal (the melt-zone) than in the solid state, a molten zone is created by an external heating zone heater. This zone moves along a rod of the impure metal or semiconductor crystal, all the while accumulating impurities in the liquid that are finally pushed to one end of the rod. After several passes a very pure crystal rod is obtained by cutting off the impure end.

Zone refining was created at the famous Bell Laboratories, circa 1953 by John Desmond Bernal and further developed by William Gardner Pfann to prepare high purity materials.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zone_melting.

These were the heady days of the famous US laboratory that also boasted of inventing the working transistor and superconductor, circa 1947-1951 by the only person who has won the Nobel prize in Physics two times! – the great John Bardeen.

Today several novel microheater configurations can be used for NanoZone™ melting or for additive manufacturing.   Click here for more information.

November 15, 2020

  • Read about anti-microbial cleaning  here.
  • Did you know that humans have over 10 trillion microbial cells, several billion bacteria and bacteriophages?
  • Bacteria tend to be ~ 1^-10 micrometers in size and can be seen with optical microscopes.
  • Viruses can range from one to 500 nanometers in size. Powerful, high magnification electron microscopes are required to see them.
  • The various coronaviruses are about ~50- 150  nanometers (including the SARS CoV-2).
  • Antibodies are of the order of 10 nanometers.
  • The size of spikes on the virus envelope ~20 nm
  • Size of pores in a good respirator ~300 nm.  This is why multiple layers are used.
  • With chemicals, about a 10-minute soak is often required to denature a virus
  • With high temperature steam this could be achieved in seconds

A nanometer is 10^-9 m (^ indicates – raised to the power of)

From: Anu Vissa
Sent: Sunday, November 8, 2020 12:39 PM
To: Jai Sekhar <[email protected]>
Subject: FW: trivia update

November 6, 2020

Did you know that people actually study the History of Trivia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trivia

The first blog with trivia about thermal materials and thermal technology is  https://mhi-inc.com/did-you-know/

November 2, 2020

Did you know that high temperature often speeds up all reactions in an exponential manner?

  • High productivity comes from doing things at a high temperature. Broadly speaking, there are two types of reactions (i) spontaneous and (ii) those which require energy to help them along.
  • Regardless, both require some form of activation. Some reactions, though spontaneous, are very slow unless the temperature is increased – think of it as overcoming the inertia.
  • Use the calculator and information on https://mhi-inc.com/superheated_steam/steam-calculator-superheated-tables.html for more information on steam reactions.

October 25, 2020

It appears that the first use of radiant furnaces for chambers above 1200°C was around circa 1850 BCE.  Regardless, some ancient rock temples in India may have seen some form of semi-solid casting of artifacts, which could place the advent of the first use of radiant furnaces to an earlier date.

A good furnace today is considered to be one that produces no emissions when the heat is generated, offers controlled heat-up, provides uniformity to the charge, and is built with high-grade non-toxic  (Fiberfree™) insulation for energy efficiency and safety.   Large spans in high temperature furnaces have become possible because of special materials and designs for  roof-hangers.

Did you know that  any surface at a temperature of 1500°Cemits a high radiation of almost 560kW/m2 – a very high amount compared to an average gas flame?  Read More…?

October 18, 2020

Materials and new designs have impacted furnace efficiency considerably in the past decade. Here are a few examples:

  • Fractal Refractories. Clean refractories last a long time and preserve energy efficiency over the life of a furnace.
  • High alumina roof hangers now allow large furnace spans.  https://mhi-inc.com/product/roof-hanger-99-8-alumina/
  • New heating elements (with nanotechnology) like the GAXP® have brought down furnace prices – as they last for years.
  • In general the rise of electric furnace use is preventing pollution. Now electric Airtorch® products are being used for conversion of CO2 to fuels.  https://mhi-inc.com/airtorch-models/

Did you know that some of the earliest furnaces that were used in Mesopotamia, China and India were used for casting bronze alloys as far back as 2000 BCE?  Amazingly, it is now becoming clear that these alloys were nanocrystal-grained as well as possessing special five-fold rotationally symmetric crystal lattices.  Did you know ancient materials often comprised of nanomaterials that lent to color, durability and reflectivity? See   https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119188230.saseas0400 or even photonic special mirrors  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12666-018-1535-1.

October 11, 2020

Did you know steam is an antimicrobial agent? See https://bayzi.com/steam-cleaning-studies/

  • Steam offers a ton of benefits over conventional cleaning. One of the most attractive reasons to use steam is that it cleans with water.
  • Steam cleans, sanitizes and deodorizes .  Steam cleaning can kill 99.999 percent of bacteria, germs and dust mites when above 200C for the correct residence time. This includes E. coli, Staph bacteria, Salmonella and other micro-organisms, surface molds, bacteria, viruses and other dirty critters like flies, lurking around the house.  Products like the  SaniZap® offer very high temperature instant steam.
  • Steam also cleans grime. It removes dirt, loosens stains,and powers through grease and grime without the elbow grease needed in traditional cleaning. This means less time scrubbing.
  • If you have a pet (or a teenager!) – be happy that steam removes odors from soft surfaces such as mattresses, carpets and upholstery without any new allergens.
  • Everyone is increasingly concerned about the possible health ramifications of chemical residue and gases in common cleaning products. There is no need for chemicals or detergents with steam cleaning.
  • Steam can be used on just about any hard or soft surface as long as proper care is exercised. It’s a great cleaning tool from floor to ceiling.
  • Here is just a partial list of things that you can clean and disinfect with steam: sealed flooring (hardwood, tile, natural stone, laminate, vinyl), toilet and surrounding area, counter tops, oven, stove top, pet bedding, mattresses, upholstery, children’s toys, refrigerator, pantry shelves, and laundry areas.  Each type requires some experience.
  • Cleaning with steam replaces expensive cleaners and disinfectants.  No need for special rooms (cold and dark) to store the chemicals.

October 4, 2020

 

US Astronaut Scott Kelly marked Day 300 in space by playing ping pong with a drop of water and two hydrophobic paddles. The paddles are made hydrophobic so that water does not stick to them.

Lotus leaves are hydrophobic because of fine nano-structures – something many engineering systems are now mimicking.  See for example  https://mhi-inc.com/PG4/SurfaceroughnessandDeburringwithe-ionPlasma.htm

The microgravity causes the water droplet to form a sphere because of surface tension (just like a soap bubble) making it possible to play ping-pong in space with a water ball.

See it here:  https://youtu.be/TLbhrMCM4_0 by NASA.  Or see the dance of a water droplet  https://vimeo.com/channels/837974

September 26, 2020

The problem of atmosphere clean-up is severe. The search is ongoing to find reactions for CO2 and reduce greenhouse gases from the atmosphere, like plants do with the Photosynthesis.

The MHI Airtorch® and MHI Plasma Systems assist catalysis.

  • Gases like methane CH4(g) can be removed through Steam Reforming
  • CH4(g) + H2O(g) = CO(g) + 3H2(g) Steam Reforming above ~750C. Both CO and H2 are reducing gasses for several oxides
  • Also 2CO(g) + NaN3 = 2C + NaO2 + 1.5N2(g) is possible even at medium temperatures.
  • The Boudouard reaction 2CO(g) = CO2(g) + C can occur below ~750C. Similarly Fe2O3 + hot CO(g) can yield clean Fe.
  • Hot CO2 or CO can easily be reacted with azides of Na, Ca, Li etc. to make useful solids or liquids, while the oxides of alkali metals can be recovered.
  • NaN2 +CO2 or Ca-N or Li-N compounds can be reacted with hot CO2; or oxides can be reacted with hot CO for clean metal production.
  • Syngas can be easily heated. Various combinatorial ratios are feasible.
  • Hot CO2(g) + NaN3 = C + NaO2 + 1.5N2(g) is negative free energy with good kinetics above 980C. Catalysts available. Quasi R®

September 19, 2020

Have you ever wondered why steam locomotive have very large vertical panels installed on both sides of the engine?

Almost all steam locomotives have a burnt-gas,  soot-spewing chimney at the front. This creates a problem when the train is moving at a high speed.  The smoke gushes into the drivers cab.   The vertical panels (called lifters) guide the airflow around the boiler to push the smoke up and over the cab, thus keeping the view ahead clear.

Did you know that:

  • Although prototypes had previously been created, the first full scale  steam locomotive  was built in Britain by Richard Trevithick in 1804.
  • The  steam locomotive changed  transportation. It was an icon of the industrial revolution and prosperity in many countries throughout the  world .
  • Although steam is not used for direct conversion to work except in sea-faring vessels, the knowledge of steam power has today led to a significant progress  for chemical processes and for  antimicrobial work.

September 12, 2020

 

One would imagine that heat flows smoothly from hot to cold regions in an even manner. In the small-scale quantum world this is not true.

Researchers have found that temperature behaves somewhat “oddly” in nanostructures and special thin materials. For example, in graphene, the electrons carrying the heat-energy propagate out in waves with ripples (Instabilities). Consequently, some regions in the graphene remain cold while others heat up while the thermal energy is flowing.

Controlling the ripples may give us a new way in the future for harnessing instabilities and ensuring better heat transfer.

The new laws of entropy generation-rate (MEPR laws) may allow us such explorations.

September 5, 2020

Did you know that there are several free calculators on the MHI site,  Including a product financing calculator?

August 29, 2020

  • Hot air balloons work because hot air rises. By heating the air inside the balloon with a burner, it becomes lighter than the cooler air on the outside. This causes the balloon to float upwards. Unmanned hot air balloons (Chinese lanterns) were flown as early as circa AD 220.
  • The first unmanned flight is reported to have been on September 19, 1783. The Aerostat Réveillon was flown with the first (non-human) living creatures in a basket attached to the balloon – the passengers: a sheep, a duck and a rooster.
  • Following Robert Boyle’s Law in 1662, and Henry Cavendish’s 1766 work on hydrogen, Joseph Black proposed that if a gaseous element filled a balloon, the inflated object could rise up into the air. This balloon was released on August 27, 1783. The balloon flew 13 miles. The first flight with human passengers was made on November 21, 1783.
  • Today , hot air balloons are used primarily for recreation and weather monitoring. There are reportedly about 7,500 hot air balloons operating in the United States.

August 22, 2020

Did you know that Cement Processing Involves  Very High Temperatures?  The major steps are:

  • Concrete is cement slurry with water, sand, and rock.  Cement is manufactured through a closely controlled chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron, and other ingredients that are contained in limestone (CaCO3 and skeletal remains of marine organisms) with other minerals.
  • First the minerals are quarried then the quarried rock is crushed.  The crushed rock is combined with other ingredients such as iron ore or fly ash, ground and fed to a cement furnace with a hot blast e.g. sometimes with an  Airtorch®.
  • The  furnace heats all the ingredients to about 2,700F (1522C) in huge cylindrical steel rotary kilns lined with special firebrick.  As the material moves through the furnace, certain elements are driven off in the form of gases (mostly CO2).  This CO2 can be converted to high value syngas.
  • The remaining elements unite to form a new substance called clinker. Clinkers comes out of the red-hot furnace – grey balls, about the size of marbles. After the clinker is cooled, cement plants grind it and mix it with small amounts of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and limestone.
  • Mr. din in is reported to have first made cement first, Circa 1815, by heating powdered limestone and clay.

August 15, 2020

Microheaters are useful for

  • Did you know Microheaters are used either as Spirals or Linear heaters?
  • Spiral profiles optimize properties, including radiation properties. See for example https://mhi-inc.com/Microheaters.htm.
  • Linear Profiles are like a hot knife edge https://mhi-inc.com/microheaters/
  • A spiral is an involute curve which emanates from a point, moving farther away as it revolves around the point. The most common form is the Archimedean Spiral defined by the equation r = a+ b(theta) in polar coordinates. A helix and vortex are three dimensional spirals. Nature invokes these shapes for a variety of building blocks from galaxies to cellular matter. Spirals are also key thematic blocks for many art forms. Spirals and vortex depictions can be found across historical art forms e.g. pre-Columbian art in Latin and Central America. Spirals are also are a psychedelic form of art to depict hypnotic effects.
  • Did you know that the involute shapes have amazing properties that make them extremely important for engineering products? From gears, compressors and fans, the involute shaped products allow for low-friction, low-noise and high-life. Now abundantly used in radiation heating.

August 10, 2020

High quality dry steam has several important applications

  • Antimicrobial use. See for example www.bayzi.com a site dedicated to steam for antimicrobial use.
  • The wicking property of steam. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_pipe.
  • High temperature steam as a reaction species in several fuel producing reactions. Amongst these, the waste-to-fuel uses are particularly important as they impact CO removal and enable chemical and fuel production.
  • For waste-to-fuel discrete fuel production consider the GHGA. Many steam reactions are beneficial for energy production and biomass utilization.
  • Waste can be converted to methanol and ethanol. Common garbage can be subjected to plasma impact to break down organic materials into syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
  • Organic waste can be converted into fuel. A mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide – from municipal solid waste and other renewable biomass, can be converted to long-chain hydrocarbon molecules that make up diesel and jet fuels. Some of these reactions are discussed in https://mhi-inc.com/steam-applications/ and related pages such as https://mhi-inc.com/steam-generator-models/.
  • Super-heated steam offers high kinetics and clean chemistry. The Quasi-R® nano catalysts are particularly important for applications where the temperature has to be the low.
  • A variety of steam generators are listed on https://mhi-inc.com/superheated-steam-generators-electric-steam-generator/.

August 1, 2020

  • Did you know that humans have over 10 trillion cells, over 10 trillion microbial cells, several billion bacteria and bacteriophages?
  • Bacteria tend to be ~ 1-10 micrometers in size and can be seen with optical microscopes.
  • Viruses can range from one to 500 nanometers in size. Powerful, high magnification electron microscopes are required to image them.
  • The various coronaviruses sizes are about 50 nm nanometers (including the SARS CoV-2).
  • Antibodies are of the order of 10 nanometers.
  • Read about anti-microbial cleaning here.

 

July 26, 2020

 

We live in a strange universe where most of it is unknown to us. Many of the unknowns are beautifully explained here. Here is a sample:

Dark Energy: In the most widely accepted model of dark energy, it is an inherent property of space itself, which has “negative pressure” driving space apart. As space expands, more space is created, and with it, more dark energy. Based on the observed rate of expansion, scientists know that the sum of all the dark energy must make up more than 70 percent of the total contents of the universe.

Dark Matter: Cannot be seen directly nor has it been detected by indirect means.. Dark matter’s existence is inferred from its gravitational-like effects on visible matter, radiation and the structure of the universe. The estimate is that 84 percent of the matter in the universe does not absorb or emit light. One study suggests dark matter radiates out from Earth in the form of fine-grained streams.

While all of these are being explored we take solace that one key law is not violated. Time moves forward because a property called entropy – there is no way to reverse a rise in entropy after it has occurred (i.e. the entropy of the universe can only increase). A small amount of space with very low entropy apparently ballooned out to what it is now. Perhaps space-time is flat so that it can expand out to infinity? Cosmologists have constructed a theory called inflation that accounts for the way in which a small volume of space occupied by a virtual particle pair (like matter and antimatter) could have ballooned to become the vast universe we see today. But there is no way to know with the tools we employ. For example, at 200,000 atmospheres, oxygen organizes to a blue colored, strong, eight atom lattice, but we are not quite sure what happens if compressed a lot more.

 

July 17, 2020

  • A common problem with standard boilers is that is that very high pressures are needed to create high temperature steam.
  • Steam Generators, on the other hand, allow for independent temperature, flow rate and pressure settings. The GHGA is one such generator.
  • In contrast to conventional pressure-boilers, steam generators produce high quality steam quickly, even on start-up, and have less need for piping.
  • Did you know that high temperature steam is used for many applications? These include the production of Clean Fuels, Antimicrobial Efficacy, Oxidation and Erosion Studies, Food Industry, Packaging, Chemicals, Cleaning, Materials. Bioprocesses, Energy, Hydrolysis, Process Heating, Flavors, Drying, Textiles and even Simulation of Martian Atmospheres.

July 12, 2020

Did you know it is critical to use high thermal shock resistant furniture inside furnaces?

  • These are often porous to withstand thermal shock. High alumina saggars are one type of kiln furniture used in various firing applications across a range in the industry.
  • Furnace Furniture are the shelves, containers and posts used to support parts or ware inside the high temperature furnace.
  • Many shapes and formulations are available in various ceramic compositions, depending on the product application. The key properties to look for are thermal shock resistance, no contamination and high temperature strength. Nanotechnology has made superior furnace furniture possible.
  • Several proprietary formulations are used such as high alumina BR and Fractalin™ boards, shelves, and containers. Some of these are CERAMIC PRODUCTS or HEARTH PLATES.

July 5, 2020

  • Waste-to-Energy Fuel Technologies are now in semi-commercial stages of development.
  • Waste like municipal solid waste and other biomass can be converted to methanol and ethanol.
  • With the ion-plasma organic materials in waste can be broken down into syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
  • Did you know that CO2 (carbon dioxide gas) or CH4 (methane gas) can be mixed with very hot steam and converted to various compositions of syngas?
  • Syngas can be used to make a variety of fuels and other products (like diesel and jet fuels), or used for reductions of oxides.
  • The elusive industrial photosynthesis reactions between CO2 and energized H2O are also becoming possible with modern Airtoch® technologies. Some of these exciting possibilities are discussed in https://mhi-inc.com/steam-applications/.

June 28, 2020

Did you know flat radiant heaters are used in various configurations? The most important feature is the simplicity in the heater design and materials. Most of the time single phase heaters perform more reliably than three phase radiant heaters. Ideal heaters offer high emissivity and good coverage. Typical uses:

  • Vapor deposition
  • Inside reactors for activating catalysts
  • Testing with high intensity heat flux on a wide surface. Typical 500KW/m2.
  • Semiconductor processing
  • Ceramic manufacturing

and a variety of other uses listed on https://mhi-inc.com/radiant-pancake-style-flat-heating-element/ and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microheater

 

June 21, 2020

 

Microheaters are useful for

  • processing many material
  • targeted heating, fiber heating, channel heatin
  • heating automotive nozzles, plates and engine in cold climates, ship instrument
  • space heating and propulsion, and many more listed on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microheater

 

June 14, 2020

  • Emissivity is defined as the ratio of the energy radiated from a material’s surface to that radiated from a blackbody (a perfect emitter) at the same temperature and wavelength. It is a dimensionless number between 0 (a perfect reflector) and 1 (a perfect emitter). For solving engineering problems related to heating by radiation, it is a common assumption to consider the emissivity as independent of wavelength. Such an approximation is called the grey-body approximation.
  • The the amount of thermal radiation emitted by a surface depends on the emissivity of the object’s surface. The surface texture and chemistry influence emissivity. The total emissivity also depends on the temperature of the surface as well as wavelength. Radiation thermometers detect the wavelength and the temperature of thermal radiation emitted by a surface. They are generally calibrated using a blackbody reference source that has an emissivity close to 1 (https://mhi-inc.com/microtube_heaters.html). Polished surfaces have low emissivity however the reflectivity depends on the wavelength.
  • Nano-Coatings on metals and glasses are used for controlling the intensity of infrared radiation. For more information visit https://mhi-inc.com/freeradiationpowercalculator.htm
  • Did you know MHI makes materials and devices for high temperature applications and so constantly is concerned about emissivity. See Thermoplates™ and Glow-Panels™ on https://mhi-inc.com/product-category/radiative-heaters/191/.

June 7, 2020

May 31, 2020

There are several calculators available on the MHI site

May 23, 2020

  • The size of the corona virus is (~50- 150 nm) (nm-nanometers).
  • The size of spikes on the virus envelope ~20 nm
  • Size of pores in a good respirator ~300 nm.  This is why multiple layers are used.

A nanometer is 10^-9 m (^ indicates – raised to the power of)

————————————————————————————–

More Dimensional Scales of Interest

  • Average Diameter of the world: 12,792 Km (Km-kilometer
  • Deepest ocean trench: ~10,994 m  (m-meter
  • Highest mountain: ~ 8,850 m
  • Human scale: ~1 m
  • Pencil tip: ~1 mm (mm-millimeter)
  • Grain of salt: ~0.1-1 mm
  • Bacterium: ~1-10 micrometer (10^-6 m)
  • Atoms/molecules ~0.1 nm-100nm (10^-9 m)
  • Electrons: ~10^-7 nm (nanometer)
  • Planck’s length (quarks): ~10^-26 nm (smallest scale that is believed to exist in space-time)

May 17, 2020

High performance materials have greatly impacted the efficiency of thermal devices in the past decade. Here are a few examples:

  • Fractal Refractories. Clean refractories last a long time and preserve energy efficiency over the life of a furnace. https://mhi-inc.com/product-category/68/66/page/2/
  • High alumina roof hangers allow large furnace spans. https://mhi-inc.com/product/roof-hanger-99-8-alumina/
  • New heating elements (with nanotechnology) like the GAXP® have brought down furnace prices – as they last for years. https://mhi-inc.com/PG3/GAXPMaterial.htm
  • In general, the rise of electric furnace use is preventing pollution. Now electric Airtorch® products are being used for conversion of CO2 to fuels. https://mhi-inc.com/airtorch-applications/
  • New low friction, antimicrobial Quasi-R® surfaces have changed the way materials interact with the environment.
  • Did you know that some of the earliest furnaces that were used in Mesopotamia, China and India were used for casting bronze alloys as far back as 2000 BCE?
  • Today we value specific alloys that are nanocrystal grained and also display five-fold rotationally symmetric crystal lattices. Amazingly, it is now becoming clear that some of these ancient alloys displayed these very features! The superior properties of color, durability and reflectivity of ancient bronze materials are because of nanomaterials. Books on Nano-Archeology.

May 10, 2020

  • Today, it is even more important to use high quality energy.
  • According to some EU studies, between 1990 and 2014, greenhouse gas emissions in the bloc already decreased by 23%, while the economy grew by 61%. World leaders agreed four years ago in Paris to keep global warming below 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 Fahrenheit), ideally no more than 1.5oC (2.7oF) by the end of the century. Scientists say countries could miss both of those goals by a wide margin unless drastic steps are taken to begin cutting greenhouse gas emissions soon. Click here for published references.
  • New technologies from MHI Inc. make these goals possible: Airtorch® applications page , MightySteam® applications page many more products listed here.
  • Convert CO2 to useful products.
  • Waste can also be converted to methanol and ethanol.
  • Garbage and organic materials can be converted into syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, with the use of E-ion Plasma.
  • Organic waste can be converted into Fuel via the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Some of these reactions are discussed here.

May 3, 2020

  • Millions of lives have been saved with scientifically created antibacterial/antibiotic drugs. It is estimated that penicillin alone may have saved 80 – 200 million lives.
  • So many ways to keep things clean. Many methods in the MHI blog.
  • Over time, bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics. We now live in an era of superbugs. Did you know dry high temperature (over 250°C) steam is often used to sanitize and even sterilize objects? Anti-microbial surfaces like Textured Inorganic Surfaces is another way to a cleaner environment.

April 25, 2020

Science is full of very curious facts. Did you know?

  • Mathematical patterns are some of the purest. Mathematics seeks to explain abstract patterns or regularities of all kinds some of which don’t resemble physical patterns. Source https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patterns_in_nature
  • A three-dimensional object that spins on its long axis will start spinning and keep flipping on its most asymmetric axis. It’s called the wing nut-flip effect or the Dzhanibekov effect. Source: https://youtu.be/1n-HMSCDYtM.
  • Some chemical reactions just oscillate and display beautiful color patterns. This has proven to be a way of making nanocrystals and nano-bands. The effect is named after B. Belosouv and A. Zhabotinsky. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belousov%E2%80%93Zhabotinsky_reaction and Acta Mater. 2010, 58.

April 19, 2020

MHI trademarks include 3DBrazing© and 4DSintering©

April 12, 2020

Did you know microheaters are used in their various forms for:

April 5, 2020

We offer our heartfelt good wishes for everyone’s safety and comfort. Did you know that updated information about the impact of Covid-19 is available from the following sources.

High Temperature Microheaters™ | MHI-INC

March 29, 2020

Materials and new designs have impacted furnace efficiency considerably in the past decade. Here are a few examples:

  • Fractal Refractories. Clean refractories last a long time and preserve energy efficiency over the life of a furnace.
  • High alumina roof hangers. Now allow large furnace spans.
  • New heating elements (with nanotechnology) like the GAXP® have brought down furnace prices – as they last for years.
  • In general the rise of electric furnace use is preventing pollution. Now electric Airtorch® products are being used for conversion of CO2 to fuels.

Did you know that some of the earliest furnaces that were used in Mesopotamia, China and India were used for casting bronze alloys as far back as 2000 BCE?

Amazingly it is now becoming clear that these alloys were nanocrystal grained and also displayed five-fold rotationally symmetric crystal lattices.

Did you know ancient materials often comprised of nanomaterials that lent to color, durability and reflectivity? Click to https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119188230.saseas0400

March 22, 2020

Did you know about self-cleaning surfaces?

  • Self-cleaning surfaces are a class of materials with a surface that has the inherent ability to remove any debris or bacteria from their surfaces in a variety of ways.
  • The self-cleaning texture/functionality of these surfaces are often inspired by natural phenomena observed in plant leaves.
  • There are two classes of self-cleaning surfaces:
    • Super-hydrophobic surfaces where droplets collect debris and roll-off. Hydrophobicity is promoted by low surface energy and hierarchical nano-pillar-asperity surfaces.
    • Super-hydrophilic surfaces where the water spreads rapidly and quickly dissolves dirt or lifts it up to the water surface. Hydrophilicity is promoted by high surface energy.

Did you know that surfaces can additionally be antimicrobial as some of the Quasi-R® surfaces?

March 15, 2020

Did you know clean high temperature dry steam offers several unique applications based on the unique properties of steam?

Applications:

  • Antimicrobial Applications: Dry high quality low-oxygen steam is a known antimicrobial agent without leaving any organic residue.
  • Steam offers several levels of cleaning useful for demanding food contact surfaces and other general cleaning situations. Examples of use for this purpose in industry include the canning and bottling industry, soil remediation, among others.
  • Productivity increases with the availability of MightySteam™ – high temperature, dry and instant steam.
  • Heating Applications: Steam offers heat transfer coefficients that are very high. The heat-content is also very high. Steam dries faster than air above the inversion point.
  • Chemical and Fuel Production Applications: Many steam reactions are beneficial for energy production and biomass. Super-heated steam offers high kinetics and clean chemistry for waste-to-fuel discrete community fuel production.

Unusual Properties of high quality Steam-Gas:

  • Penetration: As it condenses, steam continues to wick.
  • Additive: Add to gas or plasma streams.
  • The heat-content is very high.
  • Steam dries faster than air above the inversion point. Generally about 280°C
  • Power Generation with Condensing Steam. High temperature steam 800C+ models for mega-watts are useful for turning turbines. Remember, only the temperature difference is related to the Carnot efficiency.
  • March 7, 2020
  • The Mpemba effect is the description of a process in which hot water can freeze faster than cold water.
  • The effect is named after the Tanzanian Mr. Erasto Mpemba. In 1963, while freezing ice cream mixes in a cookery class, he noticed that the hot mix froze before the cold mix.
  • Several explanations are offered, from dissolved gas differences to influences on supercooling tendencies depending on the type of water.
  • Regardless, the intrigue continues with this fascinating observation even today. For more information https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mpemba_effect

March 1, 2020

  • A substance can exist in solid, liquid or gas phase depending on the temperature and pressure.
  • At extremely low temperatures, close to 0°K, or very high temperatures and pressures, other phases called Bose condensates or supercritical phases can also appear which are neither gas, liquid nor solid.
  • The triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) can exist simultaneously. The triple point of CO is 68.10 K and 0.1517 atm. For Platinum it is 2045 K and 2.0×10 −6 atm. At the triple point the material rapidly transitions between the three different states of matter. The critical point is the highest temperature and pressure at which a pure material can exist in solid/vapor/liquid equilibrium.

Since the triple point is a point , there is only one temperature and one pressure where the three phases will exist. Did you know some materials may have different types of solids and thus show several triple points like the lamda point for mercury. This fact often helps in identifying compounds. For more information visit https://mhi-inc.com/Converter/watt_calculator.htm

February 22, 2020

  • In several engineering field applications one can alter the path of progress to prevent high energy usage for an objective. It is akin to not taking a hilly path between two locations when something else is available. With mechanical systems, one uses levers and pulley to help with an objective.
  • Similarly, in the chemical industry, catalysts are employed to assist with chemical objectives. Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance (the catalyst) which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
  • Numerous reactions that occur in the bodies of animals and plants are catalyzed by enzymes. Catalysts can be highly efficient. For example, one molecule of enzyme can transform millions of molecules of the reactant per minute.
  • Catalysts are used for hydrogenation of fats to make margarine. Food items are routinely prepared with biocatalysts.
  • Cars and trucks use catalytic converters which are exhaust emission control devices. They reduce toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine into less-toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction (an oxidation and a reduction reaction).
  • Did you know temperature is sometimes called a thermal catalyst?

February 16, 2020

How are crystals purified?

  • Very often by a process called zone-refining, a useful method to obtain crystals of very high purity for critical use materials like silicon and germanium used in the electronics industry . It is also referred to as zone melting, floating zone process, and traveling melting zone.
  • Since impurities are generally more soluble in the molten state of metal (the melt-zone) than in the solid state, a molten zone is created by an external heating zone heater. This zone moves along a rod of the impure metal or semiconductor crystal, all the while accumulating impurities in the liquid that are finally pushed to one end of the rod. After several passes a very pure crystal is obtained by cutting off the impure end. The Robust Radiators can produce high-temperature zones.
  • Zone refining was created at the famous Bell Laboratories, circa 1953 by John Desmond Bernal and further developed by William Gardner Pfann to prepare high purity materials. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zone_melting.
  • These were the heady days of the famous US laboratory that also boasted of inventing the working transistor and superconductor, circa 1947-1951 by the only person who has won the Nobel prize in Physics two times! – the great John Bardeen.

February 9, 2020

  • Millions of lives have been saved with scientifically created antibacterial/antibiotic drugs. It is estimated that penicillin alone may have saved 80 – 200 million lives.
  • However, over time, bacteria have generated resistance to antibiotics.
  • We now live in an era of superbugs. Did you know dry high temperature (over 250°C) steam is often used to sanitize and even sterilize objects? See steam applications page – https://mhi-inc.com/steam-applications/.
  • New nano-surfaces like the Quasi-R® also provide a new way to address this problem https://mhi-inc.com/product/nano-silver-coated-stainless-steel-coupon/.

February 2, 2020

  • The melting point of a solid depends on its size? As the particle-size becomes very small, the melting point decreases – but this influence is noted only below ~50 nm (50×10-6 mm) particle diameters. For example a millimeter size nugget, gold (Au) melts at 1064°C but can melt almost at the room temperature when the particle radius is lower than 1 nm.
  • An opposite effect is that of pressure. Pressure increases the melting point (for materials that expand on melting). The same gold will melt at close to 1500°C when the pressure applied during melting is 10 GPa (GigaPascals) i.e., 10000 times greater than the atmospheric pressure.
  • Several additive materials processes are carried out with microheaters https://mhi-inc.com/Microheaters_spiral.html

January 25, 2020

  • When a particle and an antiparticle meet face-to-face, they annihilate each other, creating pure energy. Conversely, from nothing one can possibly get matter and antimatter? Is this how it all formed?
  • Scientists are now exploring the ubiquitous but elusive neutrinos which are their own antimatter. Why? Such research may eventually tell us how we as humans exist!
  • Physics is full of unsolved mysteries. Here is a link with 18 of them https://www.livescience.com/34052-unsolved-mysteries-physics.html including the current thinking about the fate of the universe and what happens to all its energy.
  • On a more practical realm, discoveries like the OAB® and GHGA™ are now revolutionizing steam production – and greatly impact climate change. Did you know steam touches almost half the energy that we use?

January 19, 2020

Did you know the scale of objects that we encounter on earth spans many orders of magnitude?

Deepest ocean trench: 10,994 m
Highest mountain: 8,850 m (m-meter)
Human scale: ~1 m
Pencil tip: ~1 mm (mm-millimeter)
Grain of salt: ~0.1-1 mm
Bacterium: ~1-10 micrometer

New Friction Texture: 100 nm (nanometer)

Atoms/molecules ~0.1 nm-100nm
Electrons: ~10^-7 nm (nanometer) (^ indicates – raised to the power of)
Planck’s length (quarks): ~10^-26 nm (the smallest scale that is believed to exist in space-time)

Nano-materials and Nano-textures display grain and asperity sizes that have dimensions of a thousandth of a human hair. Nano-materials in the past were predominantly used in soft organic matter and products. All this has changed with the new class of commercial hard nano-materials for friction and catalysis. See for example some of the information posted on here. MHI is happy to provide significant energy savings with its new patented hard nano-materials used in various MHI products. A considerable amount of high temperature research involves roughness measurements. MHI takes advantage of texture features to construct its thermal products. https://mhi-inc.com/

January 12th, 2020

Did you know modern systems engineering approaches are used by MHI?

  • A modern thermomechanical device operates like a ballet. It requires extreme balancing skills with system engineering insights.
  • For example, a modern plasma that can operate with plazmised species like Air, integrates new knowledge of nano-materials such as Quasi-R®, complex SCR based control electronics such as a TRIPAN, efficient thermomechanical blowers, zero-toxicity FiberFree™ ceramics for use beyond 2000C and novel MP™ style heaters. Materials must be carefully mated so that uneven thermal expansion does not cause warping. Careful control systems and algorithms must be integrated and, yes, today AI principles must be employed.
  • See also Simplicity in Engineering for more guideline to how MHI integrates such skills for bringing you high quality energy efficiency and responsible, ecologically built equipment.

January 5th, 2020

  • One can play ping pong in space with a water ball.
  • US Astronaut Scott Kelly marked Day 300 in space by playing ping pong with a drop of water and two hydrophobic paddles. The paddles are made hydrophobic so that water does not stick to them. Lotus leaves are hydrophobic because of fine nano-structures
  • The microgravity causes the water droplet to form a sphere because of surface tension (just like a soap bubble).

See it here: https://youtu.be/TLbhrMCM4_0 by NASA

December 28th, 2019

Science is full of very curious facts. Did you know?

December 21st, 2019

  • High quality dry steam has several applications like antimicrobial use, heating, or as a reaction species.
  • Amongst these, the waste-to-fuel uses are particularly important as they additionally impact CO2 removal, as well as enable chemical and fuel production. For waste-to-fuel discrete community fuel production consider the OAB-4-750 or GOAB-12-800 or the OAB-36 or GHGA. Waste can be converted to methanol and ethanol. Garbage can be converted with plasma impact to break down organic materials into syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Organic waste can be converted into Fuel. A mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide – from municipal solid waste and other renewable biomass, can be converted to long-chain hydrocarbon molecules that make up diesel and jet fuels. Some of these reactions are discussed in https://mhi-inc.com/steam-applications/ and related pages such as https://mhi-inc.com/steam-generator-models/.
  • Many steam reactions are beneficial for energy production and biomass. Super-heated steam offers high kinetics and clean chemistry. The Quasi-R® nano catalysts are particularly important for such applications.
  • Steam generators are listed on https://mhi-inc.com/superheated-steam-generators-electric-steam-generator/.

December 15th, 2019

  • Yes there is a cost of changing to high quality energy but real data suggests that the costs are recouped. High quality energy is good for the future.
  • According to EU studies, between 1990 and 2014, greenhouse gas emissions in the bloc already decreased by 23%, while the economy grew by 61%. World leaders agreed four years ago in Paris to keep global warming below 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 Fahrenheit), ideally no more than 1.5oC (2.7oF) by the end of the century. Scientists say countries will miss both of those goals by a wide margin unless drastic steps are taken to begin cutting greenhouse gas emissions next year. Click for published reference.
  • Please check out new technologies from MHI. Airtorch® https://mhi-inc.com/airtorch-applications/ or Steam https://mhi-inc.com/steam-applications/.

December 7th, 2019

  • Ancient Chinese and Koreans, and later, the Romans were among the first to create heated floors. The Romans laid stone slabs over a heating source in the ground. In ancient China, it appears that an intricate bamboo-based flue system used natural gas for heating.
  • Although it is not clear who invented the first radiant furnace for industrial use, it appears that the first use was around circa 1850. A good furnace today is considered as one that produces no emissions when the heat is generated, offers controlled heat-up features, and provides good fiberfree™ insulation for energy efficiency and safety.
  • Electric heating is the most efficient. With today’s push for high-grade energy, super-efficient steam generators, plasma generators and furnaces have become possible. Energy efficiency leads to better savings and quality of energy.

November 30th, 2019

  • The average North American uses about 50-100 gallons of water each day and the average European uses about 40-50 gallons each day.
  • In many countries open steam is used for cooking. https://mhi-inc.com/steam-applications/
  • The potential for conservation is clearly enormous by tackling the same objective but with less water usage. Overuse of water has the potential to adversely affect human health or endanger ecosystems.
  • Did you know MHI steam systems have the potential of cutting down water-usage by over 90% in packaging? Link to https://mhi-inc.com/continuous-steam-chambers/

November 16th, 2019

Can we enable fossil-fuel-free living within one generation?

  • Did you know several world-wide energy companies believe in this?
  • Energy and environmental performance are fundamental for the success of the global society.
  • Did you know MHI has now pioneered several gas reactions with the Airtorch©, OAB©, and HGA™ units that can eliminate methane and CO2 in an energy efficient manner while using their end products.
  • Please contact MHI and also check out Airtorch© Applications and Steam Applications.

November 10th, 2019

What is the most impactful energy efficiency issue that we have encountered as humans?

An interesting take on the human ability to eat cooked (processed) foods is that somewhere during our evolution, we managed the very heavy energy demand to grow and efficiently manage the energy demand of the 84 Billion Neurons in our brains! Were it not for processed foods (think of it as predigested food, as opposed to uncooked food) – perhaps we could not have developed our brains as they are, or develop the power of intelligence that humans possess.

November 2nd , 2019

Did you know that Waste to Energy containing Fuel Technologies are now in semi-commercial stages of development?

Plastics are hydrocarbons that are made from petroleum, and they can be converted back to liquid fuel. For example, pyrolysis could be used to do this. When subjected to the high heat and pressure, water breaks down the plastic and converts it into oil. An attractive method of converting these waste materials to useful forms is anaerobic digestion with proper steam heating. This process produces biogas that can be used as a fuel.

Waste can also be converted to methanol and ethanol. Garbage can be converted with ion-plasma impact to break down organic materials into syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Organic waste via the Fischer-Tropsch reaction can be converted into Fuel. A mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide – from municipal solid waste and other renewable biomass, can be converted to long-chain hydrocarbon molecules that make up diesel and jet fuels. Some of these reactions are discussed in https://mhi-inc.com/steam-applications/.

October 26th , 2019

Heat always moves from hot objects to colder objects. Why does heat go from hot things to cold things and not vice versa? This question relates to the very nature of time. In every case in which a heat exchange does not occur, or when the heat exchanged is negligible, we see that the future behaves exactly like the past.

When heat is exchanged, new entropy is produced. Every process produces some new entropy. If zero or small, the process is reversible; if not, the process is irreversible. Generally, with time moving forward, there are heat exchanges and other fluxes that are constantly operating in our universe, producing new entropy.

  • Have you ever wondered about a thermodynamic principle that determines the formation of a particular (stable) shape such as a microstructure or a flower, over other shapes that may have been possible?
  • Yes, there appears to be one called the Principle of the Maximization of the Entropy Rate per Unit Volume.
  • Did you know that scientists and engineers are applying this principle for determining patterns in fluid-flow, shapes of two phase mixtures like ice-water, and also for the determination of friction?

October 20th , 2019

Did you know that diamonds can be made easily in a MHI Furnace? All you need is the recipe, Simgas mixer and the right furnace!

Production Gas for Diamonds (%CO2 ~0.4%, %H2O~ 0.5 to 0.9, %CO~20.5 to 20, %N2 ~42, H2~36 %, plus CH4- contact MHI)

For diamond surfaces – see Nano-Diamond

October 13th, 2019

Did you know environmentally safe die heating is now feasible with the https://mhi-inc.com/airtorch-process-gas-heaters Airtorch™?

With direct Airtorch heating https://mhi-inc.com/airtorch-applications/ or by supplementing with the Airtorch™ and blankets, the watt density on the mold is increased. This reduces the workload in an environmentally sound manner and improves performance and die-life. Other results include an increase of uniformity across the mold surface. Contact MHI for more information.

October 6th, 2019

The problem of the atmosphere clean-up is severe. The search is ongoing to find reactions for CO2 and reduce greenhouse gases from the atmosphere- like plants do with the Photosynthesis.

Some possible reactions are:

  • Hot CO2 or CO can easily be reacted with azides of Na, Ca, Li etc. to make useful solids or liquids., while the oxides of the alkali metal can be recovered.
  • NaN2 +CO2 or Ca-N or Li-N compounds can be reacted with hot CO2; or oxides can be reacted with hot CO for clean metal production.
  • Hot CO2(g) + NaN3 = C + NaO2 + 1.5N2(g) is negative free energy with good kinetics above 980C. Catalysts available.
  • Also 2CO(g) + NaN3 = 2C + NaO2 + 1.5N2(g) is possible even at medium temperatures.
  • The Boudouard reaction 2CO(g) = CO2(g) + C can occur below ~750C Similarly Fe2O3 + hot CO(g) can yield clean Fe.
  • Gases like methane CH4(g) can be removed through Steam Reforming
    • CH4(g) + H2O(g) = CO(g) + 3H2(g) Steam Reforming above ~750C. Both CO and H2 are reducing gasses for several oxide

Note that carbon nitrogen compounds can be toxic.
The yields of the reactions are not always great; Continuous Airtorch® and new OAB® Steam Systems are useful for these applications.

September 29th, 2019

September 21st , 2019

Did you know Simplicity helps productivity?

Simply Increasing the Temperature has a big influence on productivity by improving:

Temperature -uniformity, reaction rate, energy-efficiency, heat-transfer rate and the equilibrium-constant.

Temperature has an additional influence on the rate of heat transfer. For more information please access https://mhi-inc.com/superheated_steam/steam-calculator-superheated-tables.html

September 15th, 2019

Did you know that instant dry-steam at high temperatures is anti-bacterial?

Additionally, very high temperature steam has many more applications such as in drying and power-generation by Gasification, Pyrolysis, Digestion and Fermentation.

See typical examples on https://mhi-inc.com/steam-applications/. Connect to Steam Generators Units by clicking here.

September 8th, 2019

Did you know Simplicity could be an essential part of modern efficiency designs?

Simplicity builds product resilience. The manufacturing landscape is in a flux. There are new demands for improved energy efficiency with a rigorous environmental focus – now a key requirement from every product and process. These new trends have impacted manufacturing operations. They have created the impetus for radically enhanced materials and systems to accommodate global sustainability requirements and new customer preferences.

MHI Inc. now offers a new dimension of manufacturing with tested ideas for energy savings for the same objective but with new designs. We call it Simplicity – Cross platform application of our best practices!

August 31st, 2019

Microheaters are a miniaturization of thermal technology. A correct choice of heating element materials can generate over 90% energy cost savings! See economics on https://mhi-inc.com/reasons.html.

Miniaturization does not just mean taking things down to a microscale or nanoscale. It also means taking things down from a meter-scale to a smaller foot print. For example, the OAB® steam generators are able to provide 500°C+ dry steam with a much smaller foot print than that of conventional pressure boilers.

Aug 24th, 2019

A clean environment is associated with electric devices. But who discovered electricity? Most people believe it was one of the US founding fathers-Benjamin Franklin, who had one of the greatest minds of his time. He was interested in many areas of science. In the mid-1700s, he became interested in electricity. Up until that time, scientists had mainly known about and experimented with static electricity and related discharges.

In 1832 Michael Faraday published the results of his experiment on the identity of electricity. This report proved that electricity made by using a magnet, voltaic electricity produced by a battery, and static electricity are all the same. Since Faraday’s result, the history of static electricity can be thought of as the study of electricity in general. Benjamin Franklin took things a big step ahead. He came up with the idea that electricity had positive and negative charge-elements and that electricity flowed between these elements. He also believed that lightning was a form of this flowing electricity.

Did you know that MHI makes efficient electric devices and a new type of lightning or plasma – shown on www.mhi-inc.com?

August 18th, 2019

There appears to be new environmental challenges that have taken on a sense of urgency.

Did you know that advanced thermal companies are pushing hard to increase the radiated power density and temperature with clean electric sources? Electric heating sources offer a cleaner environment compared to flame heating.

A methane gas flame has an average* temperature range of 900°C to 1500°C. Common flames from wood fires show temperatures ~1200°C.

Electric glow panels now offer 1900°C with high power density ~up to 150W/sq.in and full control.

The Airtorch™ heating is 15000 Watts per sq.in.

Click here for a table showing the comparison of the available Power Density from Laser beams, Plasma, Sunlight, Gas Flames and More.

Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flame and https://mhi-inc.com/PG4/eion-plasma-device-family.html#side-tab6 .

*Note that the average temperature is not the same as the peak temperature.

Aug 11th, 2019

  • The efficiency of obtaining the maximum work from thermal energy is determined by the hot and cold temperatures between which heat may flow. The simple second law of thermodynamics caps this efficiency to (1-Tcold/Thot). If you burn fossil fuel, the best efficiency is ~50-85% for achieving a work objective. With electric energy, efficiency for an objective can be closer to 100% during conversion. Sunlight to direct electrical work is ~35-44%. For a quick review of thermodynamics, look up https://mhi-inc.com/Converter/watt_calculator.htm and learn additionally about the many temperature scales!
  • There are two main types of heat engines for converting heat to work: In an external combustion engine, the fuel burns outside and away from the engine (steam engines). In an internal combustion engine, the fuel burns inside the cylinder (typical in cars and jet engines). Each is associated with a thermodynamic-cycle that consists of a sequence of processes for the exchange of heat and work, in and out of the system, whilst varying pressure, temperature, and other thermodynamic variables within the system- eventually the cycle returns the system to its initial state.
  • Did you know that a cycle called the Brayton Cycle used with supercritical CO2 can possibly dramatically reduce the size of existing Jet Engines? The Airtorch® (https://mhi-inc.com/airtorch-process-gas-heaters/) allows for simulation of such cycles.
  • Aug 4th, 2019
  • Why MHI Airtorch™?Very low pressure drop-highest temperatures-high efficiency-industry leading quality, price and delivery. High amounts of pressure-drops can cost the user a lot of wasted expenditure. See example here. Please Request Information
  • LTA Up to 900°C. LTA is a process heater for air which requires a compressed air input.
  • VTA  Up to 900°C. VTA is process gas heater with fan or blower with low flow sensor capability. New* VTA with fan models for 1100°C.
  • MTA and GTA Up to 925°C/1100°C. These are flow or inline sealed process gas heaters which can take compressed air or compressed gas input. New Models for MVTA-DPF-DNA Class.
  • DPF â “ Up to 1150°C-1250°C/~2200°F. DPF models can take fan or blower input as well as a compressed air/gas input.
  • Large Flow MVTA. For 1000-1100°C. These are sealed process gas heater (THN or DNA class) with blower or inline capability. High KW High Flow.
  • Large Flow GTA For high pressure vessel Airtorch use. Custom engineering. Please contact us directly for assistance.

July 21st, 2019

Did you know combustion gasses can be pollutants? What are they? What are the solutions?

Typically a gas like Carbon Monoxide(CO) has toxicity associated with it, different from Carbon Dioxide (CO2) which is a green-house gas that can cause discomfort. Both are by-products of combustion, such as of natural gas. Continued operation of a kitchen gas range producing 800 ppm in a sealed- house without extra ventilation can cause carbon monoxide levels to rise quickly to unacceptable levels. The EPA standard is 9 ppm in the room. More about combustion gas toxicity.

Solutions: Go Electric (but don’t burn food) – burnt food can also produce gas. Provide for good ventilation with a good exhaust. Of course going electric may upset some cooks!

Wish to compare Electric directed energy sources like Sunlight, Lasers and Directed Plasmas? Please link to https://mhi-inc.com/PG4/eion-plasma-device-family.html#side-tab6.

July 13th, 2019

Both old or modern technologies utilize nano structures to provide advanced critical properties.

Example: One of the most famous steels was the Damascus steel used for swords in during 900 -1750 AD. This type of steel was produced using the crucible steel method, based on the earlier Indian wootz steel technology. The solidification process allowed nano carbides to precipitate out as particles arranged neatly within the body of a sword-blade. Today, there is renewed interest in new nano techniques for knives and blades.

What is a nanostructure? Features that are about 1-50 nanometers in size. A human hair is about 25,000 nanometers

 July 7th, 2019

Did you know that a key growth sector in manufacturing is net-shape manufacturing (which includes 3D-printing)?

The industry, however, seems to lag in this kind of manufacturing of engineering parts – particularly those that require higher temperatures to fabricate and deburr. Some progress has been made. Products such as the DNA Nano-powder Depositor, the MC-AM-2-130 3 layerSteam Plasma Depositorand a host of other MHI products are newly available for net-shaped manufacturing .

MHI trademarks include 3DBrazing® and 4DSintering®

June 29th, 2019

  •  June 23rd, 2019
  • Decibel dB is the unit for loudness of a sustained sound emitting event. A normal conversation is held at about 60dB between humans. At 120 dB the level of sound becomes dangerous for the ear (>100 dB is emitted by jet engines and ambulance sirens).
  • To make any sound, we expend energy. To make continuous sound, we draw on power (energy per unit time). Loudspeakers are used to produce amplified sounds. Doubling the power of a loudspeaker/amplifier generally only adds about 3dB of loudness.
  • A typical modern amplifier that uses ~100W of power to make 84dB will need 200W for a 87 dB level sound.
  • Sound is also an energy loss mechanism from friction. The Airtorch™ (https://mhi-inc.com/airtorch-process-gas-heaters/) makes no sound so all the input energy is used for the objective of process gas heating.
  • Lumens is a measure of the brightness of visible light. The efficacy of lighting products is measured in Lumens per Watt. LED backlit lamps produce 150 Lumens per Watt of power. Old light bulbs gave only 10 Lumens per Watt. To see well in a hallway, one needs at least 300Lumens.

June 15th, 2019

  • A significant increase of 1.5% to 2.8% from the earlier periods is expected for US manufacturing (reference Foundation)? It is being rapidly recognized that the best energy policy is one where efficiency is dramatically promoted by reducing the energy required to carry out the same objective.
  • Progress in new Inorganic materials is again becoming very important as such materials can be used at high temperatures and may not have the same disposability problems as soft-matter materials.
  • One of the most dramatic changes will be seen with innovations that reflect such reduction for energy employed in a variety of applications https://mhi-inc.com/MHIProduct.html.
  • Nano-surface technologies have now become a key part of modern growth-strategies.
  • See more on why we must save energy by clicking here

June 9th, 2019

Did you know that Steam whistles are a great American tradition, often blown during the American Civil War with different tunes to Indicate secret events?

According to a report in the Scientific American Supplement 1897, the first whistle was a steam trumpet, fitted on a locomotive on the Leicester and Swannington Railway (UK) in 1833 (Reference https://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu and https://www.trainorders.com/discussion/read.php?11,1178268). According to unverified reports from the same period, this whistle was physically so high and ungainly that it had to be quickly redesigned.

Early steam engines were not powerful. In the earliest steam boats, one could either blow the whistle or turn the paddle- not both! The book American Trivia by Richard Lederer and Caroline McCullagh, Gibbs Smith, 2012 lists an anecdote in which Abraham Lincoln compared this to the feeble workings of the mind of one of his contemporaries!

May 27th, 2019

Some of the fastest growing materials sectors are related to sensors and battery development. These are often tested to 1200°C by impinging a hot stream of air from an Airtorch or Steam Generator. A wide variety of application notes are available on https://mhi-inc.com/PG4/Airtorchinfographic.html and https://mhi-inc.com/steam-applications/.

June 2nd, 2019

May 12th, 2019

Did you know productivity can be vastly improved by simple change-factors? For example:

Increasing the Temperature. Big Influence. The Temperature impacts the Reaction Rate, Energy Efficiency, Heat-Transfer Rate and the Equilibrium Constant. Temperature has an influence on the rate of heat transfer.

Increasing the Pressure. Small effect.

Increasing the throughput with improved time-management processes. For example continuous processing over batch processing, or with open system processing over closed system processing.

Improving the Temperature Uniformity and Optimizing the type of energy transfer mechanism for the desired uniformity. Typical energy transfer mechanisms of interest are convective and radiative, enhanced by the e-Ion types of energy transfer/efficiency. Gases can be easily heated with the efficient Airtorch process-heater technology. Solids and liquids may be preheated with safe energy-efficient furnaces.

For more information please access https://mhi-inc.com/superheated_steam/steam-calculator-superheated-tables.html

May 4th, 2019

What does $1 (US) get you from the use of energy?

  • Household: @ 10c/kWhr, one dollar will provide full lighting and other common device use needs for about one to two days for an average US household
  • Travel: @ $2.5/gallon of gasoline an average modern car will travel about 10 miles for a dollar. Assumes 25 miles per gallon efficiency.
  • Industrial: @ 10c/kWhr, one dollar will allow for 1000 bottles to be shrink-wrapped every hour with a modern steam generator that draws 12kW of power. https://mhi-inc.com/superheated_applications.html

April 28th, 2019

  • The world today has approximately 7 Billion People.
  • We use energy to sustain our bodies and to do useful things that improve the quality of life. The way we use energy is to convert it from one form to another.
  • However, we create bad waste products in the process of energy conversion – such as excessive CO2 when we combust something.
  • The quality of available energy is continuously decreasing although the total amount remains the same.
  • The annual energy consumption is ~500+EJ/A ( Exajoules/Annum). This amount is expected to peak at~600EJ/A in the year 2030
  • In the future, a large part of the savings of high quality energy will come from smart machines that use lesser energy for the same objective, thus reducing the rate of energy degradation. (see e.g. www.mhi-inc.com).
  • Did you know? Significant energy savings are expected in the future from tribological improvements (sometimes estimated as high as 100EJ/A) just with new surface technologies?

April 20th, 2019

Spiral profiles optimize properties including radiation properties. See for example https://mhi-inc.com/Microheaters.htm.

A spiral is an involute curve which emanates from a point, moving farther away as it revolves around the point. The most common form is the Archimedean Spiral defined by the equation r = a+ b(theta) in polar coordinates. A helix and vortex are three dimensional spirals. Nature invokes these shapes for a variety of building blocks from galaxies to cellular matter. Spirals are also key thematic blocks for many art forms. Spirals and vortex depictions can be found across historical art forms e.g. pre-Columbian art in Latin and Central America. Spirals are also are a psychedelic form of art to depict hypnotic effects.

Did you know that the involute shapes have amazing properties that make them extremely important for engineering products? From gears, compressors and fans, the involute shaped products allow for low-friction, low-noise and high-life. Now abundantly used in radiation heating.

April 13th, 2019

Did you know the difference between ancient furnaces and modern furnaces? There are two major differences.

Modern furnaces are electrically heated (no combustion) – so they reach high temperatures exceeding 1700°C (3092°F). Electric heating allows for process control, improved process productivity and therefore much higher efficiencies.

The second is the roof span. Earlier, only fire-bricks were available and roof shapes and spans of these furnaces were constrained by arches and chimneys . Today, a host of new composites are used in furnace construction. Newly available materials like NanoFractalAlumina allow for very wide roof spans. When coupled with modern roof hanger designs, the roofs can be made to span several feet in width. Examples are seen in https://mhi-inc.com/PG4/high-temperature-lab-furnaces.html

April 6th, 2019

Did you know advanced material companies are rapidly increasing the power density and temperature available from clean electric sources? Electric sources mean cleaner environment compared to flame heating.

This has implications for materials processing, intergalactic transport systems as well as simulators. For comparison, note that a methane gas flame has an average* temperature range of 900°C to 1500°C. Fire is ~1200°C. Electric glow panels now offer 1900°C with high power density ~up to 150W/sq.in and full control. Airtorch heating is 15000 Watts per sq.inClick here for a table showing the comparison of the Power Density from Lasers, Sunlight, Gas Flames and More. Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flame and https://mhi-inc.com/PG4/eion-plasma-device-family.html#side-tab6 . *Note that the average temperature is not the same as the peak temperature.

March 30th, 2019

Did you know that principle of increasing entropy mirrors the arrow of time?

Now several researchers are examining if aggregate social behavior, the formation of galaxies and life itself may have very similar driving principles. Did you know it is a common simplification that entropy is just thought of as a measure disorder or a comparative measure of the quality of energy? This would be true of course if the temperature was identical . The aggregate of total entropy in the universe (which could just be an isolated control volume) has to increase for anything to happen. But locally, entropy can increase or decrease giving rise to ordered-clumps that are not well mixed with the rest of the space. Did you know there can be many pathways for a spontaneous process but one of them may be the most probable – a conclusion from a yet evolving principle (that is being tested) which indicates a requirement to maximize the rate of entropy generation along the preferred pathway. https://mhi-inc.com/Converter/watt_calculator.htm

3/23/2019

Did you know a near doubling of the average U.S. manufacturing growth is predicted for the 2018-2021 period from 1.5% to 2.8% from the earlier periods (reference Foundation)?

It appears that energy issues and productivity will become keys to planning the growth of industrial products in the future. One of the most dramatic changes is seen in the innovations for energy use in a variety of applications https://mhi-inc.com/MHIProduct.html. Nano-molecules and nano-technology aid energy conservation in a multitude of direct and indirect ways and have become a key part of growth-strategies. An example is texture of surfaces.

3/17/2019

  • One Joule (J) is equal to amount of energy required to raise an apple to a height of 1 m.
  • 1 KJ (KiloJoule) is equal to the chemical energy converted to heat by one burning match.
  • Heating a cup of water to 100C takes about 30KJ. Boiling it – another 300KJ. To lift 1 Kg close to space the energy required is about 100MJ (MegaJoules).
  • The approximate price of electrical energy of 100MJ (~28KWhrs) is about $3 (not including the rocket!)
  • A Watt (W) is the energy conversion per second, J/s. A human converts energy at the rate of about 200W during normal activity.
  • Did you know that electric devices are cost effective because they offer the ability of precise control. See https://mhi-inc.com

3/9/2019

Did you know that the objective of many sensors and devices is to convert one form of energy to a more useful form?

Some typical devices that are used for energy conversion are described below.

Device Type                 Energy Conversion

Thermoelectric           Converts Heat to Electric Work

Heat engines               Converts Heat to Mechanical Work

Fuel Cells                     Converts Chemical Energy to Electric Work

Photosynthesis            Converts Radiation to Chemical Energy

ATP hydrolysis             Converts Chemical Energy to Mechanical Energy

Battery                         Converts Chemical Energy to Electric Work

Microphone                Converts Oscillatory sound energy to Electrical Wave Energy

3/3/2019

Natural crystals are found in the ground where the earth’s high-temperature and high-pressure may have influenced their formation. Quartz is one such crystal widely used for conducting electricity.

Lattices and point groups determine a crystal (solid) family. Many crystals are also created in laboratories under controlled conditions for specific and demanding applications. Did you know that jet engines have turbine blades grown by directional solidification of metallic crystals in gradient furnaces? For more information https://mhi-inc.com/PG3/robust-radiator.html

February 24th, 2019

Although not a fundamental thermodynamic variable, the Coefficient of Friction and other interface heat transfer coefficients are important surface variables. Did you know that the worldwide average coefficient of friction is estimated to be about 0.35 for moving pairs? With MHI devices www.mhi-inc.com we are trying hard to bring this down to almost 0.1. That means an energy savings of about 50EJ (EJ=10^18J) per year when successful. Wish to know more? Please see more details and references here https://mhi-inc.com/PG4/SurfaceroughnessandDeburringwithe-ionPlasma.htm

2/17//2019

Did you know, for most heat treatment, the ‘windows of opportunity’ for best processing outcomes are very small?  Whether heat treating steels, wood, ceramics or polymers, it is important that the treatment be very controlled. Such control is only provided by electric heating where power control can be easily tweaked. Towards this end, MHI Inc. uses the most sophisticated control systems employing SCRs, and less than ± 1C tunability and accuracy. Visit for example https://mhi-inc.com/product-category/71/ or https://mhi-inc.com/PG4/electronic-controllers-control-panels.html. A faulty heat treatment can lead to wrinkled sheet metal, missing the full bacterial control, low sinterability, macro-segregation and other defects that will reduce the effective life or efficacy of the final product. Proper thermal exposure often defines the highest quality of the final product.

2/10/ 2019

Did you know that the landscape of thermal engineering is undergoing a dramatic change? Some examples are microfurnaces to 1900C to replace large furnaces, steam generators that offer steam that can reduce energy and water consumption by 90%, or strong GlowPanelâ„¢ heat flux machines that can offer power densities in the MW/m2 range. All such technologies are now expanding our simulation of even extreme inter- terrestrial conditions, including plasma generation from just air. Please review thermal miniaturization on the page https://mhi-inc.com/MHIProduct.html. For high heat flux machines please go to https://mhi-inc.com/PG4/thermoplate-hot-plate.html.

2/3/19

The Boltzmann constant was introduced by Max Planck, but named after Ludwig Boltzmann. It sets up a relationship between energy and temperature, wavelength and temperature and also a relationship between voltage and temperature. This same constant also relates the microscopic details, or microstates of a system, to its macroscopic state with entropy S, thus making it the core idea of thermal statistical mechanics. Arguments still persist on whether it is a fundamental constant of the universe. Unlike the Planck’s constant that defines space-timerelated measurements, the Boltzmann constant is thought to simply relate measurable quantities like temperature to more fundamental properties and variations like energy-change and entropy.

Did you know that the constant is set today at 1.380 x 10-23 J/K, but when first introduced, Max Planck set it to 1.346×10-23 J/K, about 2.5% lower than today’s number!

1/27/19

The most liked colors: Blue and Red. Reference:https://www.thetoptens.com/top-ten-favorite-colors/.
The most liked numbers: 7, 3 and 8. Reference:https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/most-popular-numbers-grapes-of-math/.
The most liked sounds: Waves against rocks, Rain against the windows.
Reference:https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/9503557/Top-50-most-loved-sounds.html.
The most liked smells. After it Rains. https://www.ranker.com/list/best-smells/jacob-shelton
Did you know? We pay attention to such small details for our customer relationships. https://mhi-inc.com/PG1/mhi-advantages.html

1/20/19

It took a long time for humans to understand heat, work and energy. Heat and Work are not properties of a material, but energy is a property, just like temperature and entropy are properties. Heat and Work are only recognized when thermal energy or work (like electron flow) crosses a boundary during a process. Heat is energy in transit, i.e. a part of “energy” in the process of transfer from hot to cold objects. Thermal energy comprises of the molecular level of kinetic, vibrational and rotational energy of all the particles in a material.

1/13/19

Materials Science Studies of Inorganic Hard Materials and Biological Studies of Soft Materials are perhaps converging. Some of the weirdest materials are those that repair themselves because of bacterial assisted reconstruction (apparently in use for cell phones). Nanotexture influences surface-friction (worldwide use is almost 100EJ/per year to overcome friction). Interestingly, biological texture of skin for overcoming friction and for vibro-sensing are now known to have wide ranging similarities. Hard surface nanostructure assisted bacterial tunability or survival also depends on the nano-curvature/texture. For an introduction to surface-texture see https://mhi-inc.com/PG4/SurfaceroughnessandDeburringwithe-ionPlasma.htm . Finally, hard icosahedral materials appear to show similar patterns as flowers and petals (IIMTrans-2019).

12/29/18

There was an earlier Global Warming period called the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum. This period has been linked to an initial 5 °C temperature rise and to extreme changes in Earth’s carbon cycle. The exact age and duration of the event is uncertain but it is estimated to have occurred some 55.5 million years ago. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paleocene%E2%80%93Eocene_Thermal_Maximum.

As a form of energy, heat has the Units of Joules (J) in the International System of Units (SI). The standard unit for the rate of heat transferred is the Watt (W), defined as one Joule per second. https://mhi-inc.com/Converter/energy-converter.html. More on Energy Conservation: link to https://mhi-inc.com/EnergyefficiencyLinksforGrants.htm

12/22/18

The reaction that uses up CO2 is called photosynthesis. [CO2 + H2O (steam/water) + photons(sunlight)] gives [ [CO2O] + O2]. The reaction product is sugars/carbohydrates. This reaction requires energy of a quanta that is available in visible and infrared spectral regions. Plants have special chemicals that absorb light of the right frequency for the reaction and enable photosynthesis. Photosynthesis, although a complex phenomenon, can be thought to occur in two stages. In the first stage, light-dependent reactions capture the energy of light and use it to make the energy-storage molecules ATP and NA-DPH. During the second stage, the light-independent reactions occur where the carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere. In particularly during hot and dry conditions, the CO2decreases and the oxygen gas produced by the light-enabled reactions of photosynthesis register an increase. Sugar is created as a byproduct of the photosynthesis process. The plant now has energy. This biomass (energy containing plant) is the organic material derived from plants and animals, – a source of recoverable energy and water. Steam gasification is often carried out for energy recovery. Another reaction with steam that can be used for the production of energy molecules is Methane Steam Reforming reaction (MSR). Here methane and steam can react CH4 + 2H2O ⇔ CO2 + 4H2. Read more in https://mhi-inc.com/superheated_steam/steam-calculator-superheated-tables.html

12/15/18

Units Conversion Calculator All Units Conversion
Watt Calculator Energy and Power Examples
Steam Calculator and Superheated Steam Enthalpy and Entropy of Saturated and Superheated Steam
Flow vs. Power. Airtorchâ„¢ Model Selection Parameters
Radiation and Microheater Calculator. Radiation Colors.
Robust Radiator Calculator. Selection Parameters
Hardness Conversion. Hardness Scales
Grit to Micron Conversion. Particulate Units

12/09/18

The new technologies of high temperature processing enable unusual productivity and efficiency. For example, one can make high quality diamonds in a tube furnace https://mhi-inc.com/PG4/horizontal-tube-furnace.html#t-2. Or one can recover precious materials like palladium. Consider brazing, like the 4DBrazing® – faster brazing in a simple high temperature standard tube furnace is sometimes feasible without using expensive and large braze furnaces. Instant gas cooling is possible with SIMGAS (https://mhi-inc.com/PG4/gas-mixing-system.html).

12/1/18

The basis for high temperature superheated steam applications is because of the unique properties of steam-gas.
Heating: Steam offers heat transfer coefficients that are very high. The heat content is also very high. Steam dries faster than air above the inversion point.
Antimicrobial: Dry high quality, low-oxygen steam is a known antimicrobial agent without any organic residue.
Chemical: Many steam reactions are beneficial for energy production and biomass. Superheated steam offers high kinetics.
Penetration: Steam as it condenses, continues to wick. This is why steam heaters never required pressure driven flow pushers.
Please check out steam products on https://mhi-inc.com/superheated_steam.html#side-tab

2/3/19

The Boltzmann constant was introduced by Max Planck, but named after Ludwig Boltzmann. It sets up a relationship between energy and temperature, wavelength and temperature and also a relationship between voltage and temperature. This same constant also relates the microscopic details, or microstates of a system, to its macroscopic state with entropy S, thus making it the core idea of thermal statistical mechanics. Arguments still persist on whether it is a fundamental constant of the universe. Unlike the Planck’s constant that defines space-time measurements, the Boltzmann constant is thought to simply relate measurable quantities like temperature to more fundamental properties and variations like energy-change and entropy.

Did you know that the constant is set today at 1.380×10-23 J/K, but when first introduced, Max Planck set it to 1.346×10-23 J/K, about 2.5% lower than today’s number!

1/20/19

It took a long time for humans to understand heat, work and energy. Heat and Work are not properties of a material, but energy is a property, just like temperature and entropy are properties. Heat and Work are only recognized when thermal energy or work (like electron flow) crosses a boundary during a process. Heat is energy in transit, i.e. a part of “energy” in the process of transfer from hot to cold objects. Thermal energy comprises of the molecular level of kinetic, vibrational and rotational energy of all the particles in a material.

1/13/19

Materials Science of Inorganic Hard Materials and Biological Studies of Soft Materials are perhaps converging. Some of the weirdest materials are those that repair themselves because of bacterial assisted reconstruction (apparently in use for cell phones). Nanotexture influences surface-friction (worldwide use is almost 100EJ/per year to overcome friction). Interestingly, biological texture of skin for overcoming friction and for vibro-sensing are now known to have wide ranging similarities. Hard surface nanostructure assisted bacterial tunability or survival also depends on the nano-curvature/texture. For an introduction to surface-texture see https://mhi-inc.com/PG4/SurfaceroughnessandDeburringwithe-ionPlasma.htm . Finally, hard icosahedral materials appear to show similar patterns as flowers and petals (IIMTrans-2019).

12/29/18

There was an earlier Global Warming period called the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum. This period has been linked to an initial 5 °C temperature rise and to extreme changes in Earth’s carbon cycle. The exact age and duration of the event is uncertain but it is estimated to have occurred some 55.5 million years ago. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paleocene%E2%80%93Eocene_Thermal_Maximum.

As a form of energy, heat has the Units of Joules (J) in the International System of Units (SI). The standard unit for the rate of heat transferred is the Watt (W), defined as one Joule per second. https://mhi-inc.com/Converter/energy-converter.html. More on Energy Conservation: link to https://mhi-inc.com/EnergyefficiencyLinksforGrants.htm

12/22/18

The reaction that uses up CO2 is called photosynthesis. [CO2 + H2O (steam/water) + photons(sunlight)] gives [ [CO2O] + O2]. The reaction product is sugars/carbohydrates. This reaction requires energy of a quanta that is available in visible and infrared spectral regions. Plants have special chemicals that absorb light of the right frequency for the reaction and enable photosynthesis. Photosynthesis, although a complex phenomenon, can be thought to occur in two stages. In the first stage, light-dependent reactions capture the energy of light and use it to make the energy-storage molecules ATP and NA-DPH. During the second stage, the light-independent reactions occur where the carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere. In particularly during hot and dry conditions, the CO2decreases and the oxygen gas produced by the light-enabled reactions of photosynthesis register an increase. Sugar is created as a byproduct of the photosynthesis process. The plant now has energy. This biomass (energy containing plant) is the organic material derived from plants and animals, – a source of recoverable energy and water. Steam gasification is often carried out for energy recovery. Another reaction with steam that can be used for the production of energy molecules is Methane Steam Reforming reaction (MSR). Here methane and steam can react CH4 + 2H2O ⇔ CO2 + 4H2. Read more in https://mhi-inc.com/superheated_steam/steam-calculator-superheated-tables.html

12/15/18

Units Conversion Calculator All Units Conversion
Watt Calculator Energy and Power Examples
Steam Calculator and Superheated Steam Enthalpy and Entropy of Saturated and Superheated Steam
Flow vs. Power. Airtorchâ„¢ Model Selection Parameters
Radiation and Microheater Calculator. Radiation Colors.
Robust Radiator Calculator. Selection Parameters
Hardness Conversion. Hardness Scales
Grit to Micron Conversion. Particulate Units

12/09/18

The new technologies of high temperature processing enable unusual productivity and efficiency. For example, one can make high quality diamonds in a tube furnace https://mhi-inc.com/PG4/horizontal-tube-furnace.html#t-2. Or one can recover precious materials like palladium. Consider brazing, like the 4DBrazing® – faster brazing in a simple high temperature standard tube furnace is sometimes feasible without using expensive and large braze furnaces. Instant gas cooling is possible with SIMGAS (https://mhi-inc.com/PG4/gas-mixing-system.html).

12/1/18

The basis for high temperature superheated steam applications is because of the unique properties of steam-gas.
Heating: Steam offers heat transfer coefficients that are very high. The heat content is also very high. Steam dries faster than air above the inversion point.
Antimicrobial: Dry high quality, low-oxygen steam is a known antimicrobial agent without any organic residue.
Chemical: Many steam reactions are beneficial for energy production and biomass. Superheated steam offers high kinetics.
Penetration: Steam as it condenses, continues to wick. This is why steam heaters never required pressure driven flow pushers.
Please check out steam products on https://mhi-inc.com/superheated_steam.html#side-tab1

11/27/18

Did you know that fundamental constants are being redefined?

The Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT) has noted that the current definition of temperature is unsatisfactory for temperatures above 1,300 K (1,030 °C or 1,880 °F). The Boltzmann constant (same units as entropy) provides a better basis for temperature measurement than older basis which was the triple point of water. The kilogram, ampere, and mole are now defined by setting exact numerical values for the Planck constant (h=6.62607015×10−34 joule-second (J•s).), the elementary electric charge (e= 1.602176634×10−19 coulomb (C)), the Boltzmann constant (k=1.380649×10−23 joule per kelvin (J•K−1)), and the Avogadro constant (NA=6.02214076×1023 reciprocal mole (mol−1)). Does it impact MHI thermal calibration? https://mhi-inc.com.

11/11/28

Hardest Material: Wurtzite boron nitride. Slightly harder than natural diamond.
Light Colors: Furnace Red (~1000K-2000K), Soft White (2700K – 3000K), Bright White (3500K – 4100K), and Daylight/Sunlight (5000K – 6500K).
Highest Reported Energy Efficiency for Steam Use: OAB® or HGA™ steam generators
Continuous Air Plasma: Cascade e-ion™
Lowest Reported Dynamic Friction: Zwitterionic for Organic and Aluminum Magnesium borides for Inorganic.
Softest Mineral: Soapstone Comparing Density of Iron: Cast Iron 7300kg/m3, Mild Steel 7700Kg/m3. So why do cast iron dishes seem heavier? Answer.
Lowest Density Solid: Graphene Aerosol 160Kg/m3
Highest Density Solid: Osmium 22600Kg/m3

11/08/18

Nowadays, heating elements are made from a variety of novel silicides, aluminides and carbides and other materials like doped tungsten. In the future, nanomaterials like the GAXP will become more important.

Did you know that Edison’s first electric heating element for lighting was made from carbonized cotton and bamboo?
Learn More about Microheater materials, especially the GAXP and GAXP-IgMp that are used in air.

Sat, Nov 10, 2018

Hardest Material: Wurtzite boron nitride.  Slightly harder than natural diamond.

Light Colors:  Furnace Red (~1000K-2000K), Soft White (2700K – 3000K), Bright White White (3500K – 4100K), and Daylight/Sunlight (5000K – 6500K).

Highest Reported Energy Efficiency for  Steam Use:  OAB® or HGA™ steam generators

Continuous Air Plasma:  Cascade e-ion™

Lowest Reported Dynamic Friction:  Zwitterionic for Organic and Aluminum Magnesium borides for Inorganic.

Softest Mineral: Soapstone

Comparing Density of Iron: Cast Iron 7300kg/m3, Mild Steel 7700Kg/m3. So why do cast iron dishes seem heavier?  Answer.  Most cast iron dishes are much thicker than mild steel dishes and that is why they are heavier.

Lowest Density Solid:  Graphene Aerosol 160Kg/m3

Highest Density Solid:  Osmium 22600Kg/m3

Sat, Nov 3, 2018

When water molecules exist in a gaseous-state at a temperature above the boiling temperature of water, it is called the superheated steam-state. When at the boiling-temperature, the steam is called saturated steam. The boiling temperature depends on the pressure (e.g. 100°C for 1 atmosphere, or 134°C for 3 atmosphere and so on).

The main difference in the phase-state between saturated and superheated steam is that saturated steam can contain water droplets, whereas the higher-temperature superheated steam, even up to 1300C, is a high enthalpy gas with considerably more work potential that saturated steam. Work potential enables mechanical work and chemical reactions.

Did you know that superheater steam made by instant MHI steam generators can possibly improve the energy efficiency to over 90% of the current usage in applications ranging from biomass production to textile-fiber improvements? Over the past two years, prices have fallen drastically for steam generators.https://mhi-inc.com/superheated_steam.html.

Issue 5 Vol. 25 October 28th, 2018

Creep and Creep-Fatigue Interactions limit the roof- span of high temperature furnaces. Now, with the availability of NanoFractalAlumina™ materials – very long roof spans (non-sag roofs for years) are routinely offered by modern furnace manufacturers. Examine what large roof span furnaces look-like by clicking to https://mhi-inc.com/PG4/front-loading-furnace.html#t-0. Greatly improved energy efficiency comes from non-sag roofs https://mhi-inc.com/reasons.html.

Sun, Oct 21, 2018

X  -ray diffraction, Electron diffraction, and Neutron diffraction are ways to probe the atomic and magnetic structure of matter with radiation (wave). Each type of beam-wave is diffracted by a different scattering event in the matter which makes them all useful in different ways to probe the atomic and crystal structure. The beams were all discovered in the period 1895-1932. Each discovery had interesting events associated with the it.

Did you know a husband and wife team discovered X-rays? Anna Bertha Roentgen, the wife of Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, professor at the University of Wurzberg, the discoverer of X-rays in 1895 teamed with him to discover X-rays. It was the image of Bertha’s hand, which her husband X-rayed, that helped them prove that he had discovered something no one had ever previously seen. When she underwent the worlds first x-ray on a human, on Dec. 22, 1895, Anna Bertha exclaimed, I have seen my death on seeing the ghostly image of bones and a ring when imaged. Today X-Ray imaging and diffraction can be done at very high temperatures with micro-modules https://mhi-inc.com/PG4/fiber-heater-microheater.html

Issue 5 Vol. 24 October 14th, 2018

Did you know that to reduce the global temperature one may have to improve energy efficiency of processes by using very high temperature clean products?

See https://mhi-inc.com/EnergyefficiencyLinksforGrants.htm and https://mhi-inc.com/MHIProduct.html.

Volume 5 Issue 23 | September 29th, 2018

We use about 500EJ of energy per year.

1 ExaJoule = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 Joules. This amount is growing rapidly, while the qualityof available energy is decreasing https://mhi-inc.com/EnergyefficiencyLinksforGrants.htm. All of us must do our part for better management of energy. One way is by utilizing Smart Thermal devices like the OAB®, Airtorch™ and GAXP©. These contain new materials that enable machines and devices to reduce the end-use energy required for a defined objective considerably. Smart, Efficient, and Sustainable devices and materials are the key to success. Computers were miniaturized with smart materials.

Sun, Sep 23, 2018

What is commonly known as heat radiation lies in the Infrared part, the longer-than-light wavelengths. For solving engineering problems related to heating by radiation, it is a common assumption to consider emissivity as independent of wavelength. Such an approximation is called the grey-body approximation. Grey-body approximations are commonly made across the infrared spectrum. The Stefan-Boltzmann Law suggests that radiation heat transfer is proportional to T^4 where T is the temperature in Kevin. Wien’s law relates this temperature to a maximum wavelength, Lmax, in the wavelength spectrum of a black-body.

Did you know that recent results have begun pointing to a shift in the T^4 law when features below Lmax are associated with the surface? These are typically Nano-scale features below ~1 micron. MHI patents and products optimize heat transfer rate. See for example, the GAXP® heating elements https://mhi-inc.com/PG3/high-temperature-heating-elements.html

Sat, Sep 15, 2018

Photons are packets of energy. The packet energy increases across the regions of microwave-infrared- yellow- blue- ultraviolet – X-Rays in ascending order. A photon of Ultraviolet (UV radiation) has a lot more energy than a photon of InfraRed (IR). The heat we feel from sunlight is the infrared because sunlight has a high intensity of IR. We see only Blue to Red which lies between UV and IR with our eyes. Also, it is this IR that can cause molecular vibration in our skin-moisture, so we feel this as heat. UV can actually break apart molecules and be more dangerous as it penetrates deeper – but we may not “feel” it till we are badly sunburnt. More on radiation on https://mhi-inc.com/freeradiationpowercalculator.htm.

Did you know that an average human body emits about 100 Watts of radiation at 37°C, mostly in the IR region? Did you know that detecting human body movement requires sensors that are particularly sensitive in the IR regions? Night vision goggle have a type of feature that accentuates IR and converts it to a visible frequency which the eye can detect.

Sat, Sep 8, 2018

Temperature and heat are the parameters that relate to the inherent thermal energy of an object. The average temperature (measured by a thermometer) is a measure of the average energy of kinetic/vibrational/rotational/oscillatory motion of small particles like atoms that have mass, or of photon energy (radiation) that has no mass. Heat is defined as flow of thermal energy from an object at a higher temperature to an object at a lower temperature.

Did you know? The efficiency of obtaining the maximum work from thermal energy is determined by the hot and cold temperatures between which heat may flow. The simple second law of thermodynamics caps this efficiency to (1-Tcold/Thot). If you burn fossil fuel, the best efficiency is ~50-85% for achieving a work objective. With electric energy, efficiency for an objective can be closer to 100% during conversion. Sunlight to direct electrical work is ~35-44%. For a quick review of thermodynamics, look up https://mhi-inc.com/Converter/watt_calculator.htm and learn about the many temperature scales!

Volume 5 | September 1st, 2018

Microheaters reflect a miniaturization of thermal technology. The most effective use is when moving from batch to continuous operations in a variety of applications listed in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microheater. Continuous processing reduces waste, reduces inventory, increases productivity, and most importantly, often reduces energy expenditure. Did you know that sometimes over 90% energy cost savings are possible just by the correct choice of heating element materials? https://mhi-inc.com/reasons.html.

Issue 5 Vol. 20 August 20th, 2018

When considering high temperature-use devices, one has to design with ‘creep’ in mind. Creep is the reason why materials slowly sag . Only happens at high temperatures of use, generally at higher than about half the melting point in Kelvin. Did you know that MHI furnaces offer high roof-spans with nanofractal roof-hangers patented by MHI?https://mhi-inc.com/PG4/high-temperature-lab-furnaces.html

Issue 5 Vol. 17 Aug 4th, 2018

Did you know one can now use steam to 1500K i.e., about 1000K more than what was available in the early 1800’s for bulk steam use?

Good high temperature steam is colorless. Although steam power was creatively used in the 1800’s, it is only now that the subtle power of high temperature steam is opening new possibilities in a variety of applications like clean-cooking to clean rapid-acting antimicrobial uses. Review cleaning examples on bayzi.com.

Volume 5 Issue 17 | July 10th, 2018

Did you know that Surfaces can be optimized for emission and reflection to meet specific objectives?

Ice (a solid) reflects a much larger fraction of sunlight than water which reflects only ~ 6% of the incident solar radiation. Technically speaking, this happens because of the extinction coefficient and the refractive index differences between a liquid and solid. Sea-ice is important to prevent warming because it reflects sunlight (50-70%), thereby reducing the amount of energy absorbed at the surface. The change in the amount absorbed when there is less ice formation changes the pattern of water-currents/circulation.  An interesting observation is that snow (a semi-solid) can reflect ~90% of the incident solar radiation – even more than ice! This is related to surface roughness and correlation length differences when comparing snow and ice surfaces. MHI radiators www.mhi-inc.com are surface optimized and patented for obtaining the best efficiencies.

Volume 5 | June 25th, 2018

  • 125,000 BC, control of fire by humans. Reference Wikipedia.
  • Then tens of thousands of years later ~3000 BCE, the first candles are invented.
  • Somewhere between 2000 BCE to 1 BCE, nano-icosahedral, copper-tin alloys for reflection across the entire light and IR spectrum.
  • Almost 1000+ years later in 1792 William Murdoch produces the first gas-light and controlled heater.
  • 1809 Humphry Davy publicly demonstrates first electric lamp for over 10,000 lumens. He uses a platinum strip. One candle power ~12.5 lumens.
  • 1883 Edison produces a ~16-watt (power) lightbulb that lasts over a thousand hours. The first filament was made of carbon. Required a good vacuum.
  • 1926 Edmund Germer invents the fluorescent lamp.
  • 1995 Shuji Nakamura reportedly invents the first practical blue light LED (Blue is a High Energy Wavelength)

MHI’s Microheaters are the first GAXP® Nanotechnology Heaters and Glow

Issue 5 Vol. 9 June 11th, 2018

The Centigrade temperature scale was developed by Anders Celsius (1701–1744) by separating the melting point (~0°C) and boiling point of water (~100°C) by 100 degrees. Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736) developed the Fahrenheit scale, also by assuming that 100 degrees separated the coldest and hottest temperatures in a year yet understanding but pegging the fixed points on the scale to a thermodynamic invariant temperature, ice-water-ammonium chloride equilibrium (0°F), ice-water equilibrium (32°F), and body temperature (~98°F). The mercury-thermometer was mainly invented by a Danish experimental-mathematician Ole Christensen Romer (1644-1710) with Fahrenheit’s input. Romer was also the first to quantitatively measure the speed of light, introduce standardized street-lighting and improve nautical navigation with high precision instruments. Today we use thermocouples, thermistors and semiconducting materials with a known band-gap for the accurate measurement of temperature. We also define the lowest possible temperature (0° K) with a Kelvin (or SI) temperature-scale named after William Thompson Kelvin.

Did you know we also use Rankine, Romer, Newton, Delisle and Reaumur temperature-scale(s) for temperature measurement? And also a Planck temperature-scale that ranges from 0-1 (Tp) where 0 (Tp) = 0(°K) and 1 (Tp) = 1.416×10^32 (°K). More about thermodynamics and Planck energy on MHI Watt Calculator.

Volume 5 Issue 13 | May 14th, 2018

Materials and Extreme Temperatures

The ability of materials to withstand high or low temperatures and strong temperature gradients is significantly important. In the not so distant past, ships made of some types of steel were found to be prone to extreme brittleness when operating in very cold waters. So scientists discovered new steel alloys which allowed ships to navigate in cold climates. New Molybdenum diSilicide alloys are able to operate in air without significant oxidation even to 1900 degrees Celsius.

Significant temperature variations also occur across our planet. The highest recorded temperature on earth was 56.7°C (134°F) according to the Guinness World Records. The lowest temperature ever recorded on the surface of our planet earth was −89.2 degrees Celsius (−128.6 degrees Fahrenheit) according to Wikipedia. The core temperature at the center of the earth? This temperature varies between 5,000 and 7,000 degrees Celsius (about 9,000 and 13,000 degrees Fahrenheit) according to a National Geographic report. But not everything is vaporized at these high temperatures. The very high pressures at the core support the existence of many commonly known materials (like iron) even at these ultra-hot temperatures.

MHI makes active thermal Fiberfree™ materials that can withstand 2300 degrees Celsius. Thermal devices made from such materials allow for modern energy efficient devices such as steam generators! See examples on www.mhi-inc.com.

Volume 5 Issue 13 | May 14th, 2018                    same as above

Volume 5 | March 26th, 2017

Did you know one can make a cup of tea with a tiny solar heater that is rated for 20 Watts and uses power from a small battery? Learn More about Microheaters

May 16th, 2017

Although it is not clear who invented the first radiant furnace for industrial use, it appears that the first use was around circa 1850. A good furnace today is considered one that produces no emissions when the heat is generated, offers controlled heat-up features, and provides good fiberfree™ insulation for energy efficiency and safety. Did you know that any surface at a temperature of 1500C emits radiation of almost 560kW/m2 – a very high amount compared to an average gas flame averaged over its emissive area? Read More…?

Volume 4 | May 1st, 2017

Did you know that Thomas Edison’s first electric heating element was made from carbonized cotton and bamboo? Learn More about Microheaters

September 24th, 2018

What is commonly known as heat radiation lies in the Infrared part, the longer-than-light wavelengths. For solving engineering problems related to heating by radiation, it is a common assumption to consider emissivity as independent of wavelength. Such an approximation is called the grey-body approximation. Grey-body approximations are commonly made across the infrared spectrum. The Stefan-Boltzmann Law suggests that radiation heat transfer is proportional to T^4 where T is the temperature in Kevin. Wien’s law relates this temperature to a maximum wavelength, Lmax, in the wavelength spectrum of a black-body.

Did you know that recent results have begun pointing to a shift in the T^4 law when features below Lmax are associated with the surface? These are typically Nano-scale features below ~1 micron. MHI patents and products optimize heat transfer rate. See for example, the GAXP® heating elements https://mhi-inc.com/PG3/high-temperature-heating-elements.html

September 8th, 2018

Temperature and heat are the parameters that relate to the inherent thermal energy of an object. The average temperature (measured by a thermometer) is a measure of the average energy of kinetic/vibrational/rotational/oscillatory motion of small particles like atoms that have mass, or of photon energy (radiation) that has no mass. Heat is defined as flow of thermal energy from an object at a higher temperature to an object at a lower temperature.

Did you know? The efficiency of obtaining the maximum work from thermal energy is determined by the hot and cold temperatures between which heat may flow. The simple second law of thermodynamics caps this efficiency to (1-Tcold/Thot). If you burn fossil fuel, the best efficiency is ~50-85% for achieving a work objective. With electric energy, efficiency for an objective can be closer to 100% during conversion. Sunlight to direct electrical work is ~35-44%. For a quick review of thermodynamics, look up https://mhi-inc.com/Converter/watt_calculator.htm and learn about the many temperature scales!

August 26th, 2018

Fibers are made “naturally” like our human-hair (~25 micrometers) or by spinning like a silkworm does – each silkworm spins about a kilometer of fiber – or are made “artificially” by drawing-down glass at high temperatures. Did you know optical fibers are about a quarter of the diameter of human hair? Fibers and fiber bundles are useful for information transmission (optical fibers) or are used to reinforce brittle solids (carbon fibers) or just spun into textile-like sheets. Many laboratories have Fiberheaters or Microtube heaters that can heat fibers and fiber bundles to temperatures that enable stretching, tapering and bonding.

August 11th, 2018

Who were the scientists who set in motion our understanding of energy? Why should we be efficient? Did you know a very simple idea led to our understanding of the fundamental laws of energy use that allows us to answer such questions? Visit https://mhi-inc.com/EnergyefficiencyLinksforGrants.htm

July 28th, 2018

Did you know that high temperature often speeds up all reactions in an exponential manner?

High productivity comes from doing things at a high temperature. There are two types of reactions – spontaneous and those which require energy to cause them to occur. Regardless, both require some form of activation- a hill to climb before rolling down. Some reactions, though spontaneous, are very slow unless the temperature is increased- think of it as overcoming the inertia. Use the calculator and information on https://mhi-inc.com/superheated_steam/steam-calculator-superheated-tables.html for more information.

July 14th, 2018

Centigrade (C) and Fahrenheit (F) temperatures are the same at -40 degrees (- 40° F = – 40° C).
Did you know that the importance and cost-effectiveness of using non-gaseous phases of air are now well recognized. Solid, liquid, gas or plasma are the common phases of matter.
Making Liquid-Air is becoming very important for a variety of applications. Liquid-Air (~78.1% Nitrogen, 21.0% Oxygen, 0.9% Argon and very small amounts of other rare gases ) boils between the temperature of liquid Nitrogen (-195.79 °C) and liquid Oxygen at (-182.9 °C).
On the warmer side, the use of Air-Plasma is also gaining importance. See MHI Plasma devices.

July 2nd, 2018

The world today has approximately 7 Billion People. All living things employ energy to survive.
The annual energy consumption is ~500EJ/A ( Exajoules/Annum). This is currently expected to peak at~600EJ/A in the year 3030.
Most of savings in energy will come from smart machines that use lesser energy for the same objective (e.g. www.mhi-inc.com)
More significant energy savings are expected in the future from tribological improvements (~ 100EJ/A, just with new surface technologies)

Did you know? Just sunlight alone brings in 2.5 Million EJ/A! So we will always have at least one source of energy for a long time to come.

June 18th, 2018

Wet Steam: When water particles are suspended in it. Generally not-good for antimicrobial use.

100% Dry Quality Steam: This is superheated dry steam with no water particles.https://mhi-inc.com/superheated_steam.html

Fun Fact: Steam gas always is self-propelling because steam condenses at the steam front to almost 1000 times a lesser volume causing low pressure.

Steam Boilers appeared in 19th century
 and are still used, but produce steam very slowly. Today, instant-steam generators like the OAB allow steam to be turned on/off on demand. https://mhi-inc.com/NewOABModels.htm

Did you know? A very early article circa 1925 was able to speak about the benefits of superheated steam over saturated steam but only recently has true dry-quality superheated steam become commonly available. Now steam to 1300C may be instantly generated.

June 4th, 2018

When a solid material is hot, it has more thermal energy than when it is cold. When hot, the atoms increase their vibrational amplitude. When the amplitude of vibration increases, the average distance between molecules also increases. As the atoms get farther apart, all dimension increase. The coefficient of (volume) expansion is the change in volume per unit volume per degree change in temperature. One can imagine how metals (which have lower bond strength than non-metal solids) expand more with the same rise in temperature. The expansion coefficient is of the order of 10^-5 to 10^-6 per Kelvin. Smart thermal systems and devices, like the ones available on www.mhi-inc.com, are designed with a careful eye towards managing all expansion forces, so that there is very little bending or delamination. Did you know our universe is expanding…. yet cooling at the same time? And curiously enough… when water is heated betwee n 0 °C and 4 °C it actually shrinks!

Sun, May 20, 2018

Did you know how vastly varied is the scale of roughness that we encounter on earth?
Deepest ocean trench: 10.994 Km (Km-Kilometer)
Highest mountain: 8.850 Km
Human scale: ~1 m (m-meter)
Pencil tip: ~1 mm (mm-millimeter)
Grain of salt: ~0.1-1 mm
Bacterium: ~1-10 micrometer
Electrons: ~10^-7 nm (nanometer) (^ indicates – raised to the power of)
Planck’s length (quarks): ~10^-26 nm (smallest scale that is believed to exist in space-time)
A considerable amount of high temperature research involves roughness measurements. MHI takes advantage of texture features to construct its thermal products. https://mhi-inc.com/

Sun, May 6, 2018

Nano materials display grain sizes that are at the level of a thousandth of a human hair.

Nano materials in the past were predominantly used in soft organic matter and products. All this has changed with the new class of commercial hard nano-materials. These offer properties such as stable thermal emissivity at temperatures higher than 1000C, extraordinary life against corrosion and erosion, very novel tunable texture properties, and even antimicrobial properties. See for example some of the information posted on here. MHI is happy to provide significant energy savings with its new patented hard nano-materials used in various MHI products.

Sun, Apr 22, 2018

How much CO2 do humans produce when breathing? The average human exhales about 2-3 pounds of carbon dioxide (human activity averages at about 100 Watts or 0.36 BTU/hr) on an average day (about 15- 20 lbs. a week). The exact quantity depends on the activity level (higher activity, more CO2 exhaled). The amount of carbon that a human breathes out is almost exactly equal to the amount of carbon a human takes in (from food), minus the amount of carbon that contributes to the person’s body mass. Thus the amount of CO2 that humans exhale is roughly balanced by the amount absorbed by plants and other photosynthesis-type reactions. However, note that the human population is roughly ~ 7.5 Billion people. Thus preserving forests, using renewable sources for energy and not using combustion as an energy source is important for balance.

More information

Sun, Apr 8, 2018

Did you know that sometimes a higher-temperature item placed in a refrigerator can freeze faster compared to an identical lower-temperature item when placed in the same refrigerator at the same time.

You can do this experiment! It is a real effect named after a graduate student, Mpemba. More about energy from https://mhi-inc.com/EnergyefficiencyLinksforGrants.htm and more about the Mpemba effect from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mpemba_effect